I think a clue comes from the last line: “in the order that the Continuing Church of God claims they are in.” <-- Why would anyone write that unless they were part of that church?
Here is one method of debunking it.
First, point out that this document cites no examples or quotes from his writings. It would be like me saying “C.S. Lewis held to Mithraist beliefs about the Eucharist, he believed in the reincarnation of Zoroaster before the End Times, and pianos, a satanic instrument, were avoided by all true Christians in C.S. Lewis’s time – C.S. Lewis included.” <-- I just made that all up, but it is indistinguishable from the bogus claims made by the Continuing Church of God author. Why are they indistinguishable? Because neither one provides sources. Neither one can, because it’s incorrect.
Second, this list can be divided into three categories: correct statements, contradictory statements, and statements that fall into the category of gratuitous assertion. (That’s where you make a general statement without backing it up with evidence, usually bigoted in nature. One example is “The Catholic Church has always been anti-science.” No evidence is provided, just a gratuitous assertion. That’s a fallacy and legitimate research does not work this way. This list about Polycarp contains several fallacies of gratuitous assertion.)
Here is a division into this list:
Hierarchical church governance was advocated by Polycarp – true because St. Polycarp teaches this in his Letter to the Philippians Chapters 5-6, which speak of “being subject to the presbyters and deacons,” and describes the duties of presbyters, including enjoining instructions on others (chapter 11). The Catholic Church still teaches this today.
Deification of Christians after the resurrection was taught by the early leaders of the Church, including Polycarp – true because he taught this using the word “glorified” in Chapter 3 of his Letter to the Philippians. The Catholic Church still teaches this today, when properly understood. (Like St. Polycarp, we tend to use the word “glorification” today rather than “deification,” but it’s the same concept so long as you understand that the blessed in heaven get to Share the divine nature, but do not become worthy of adoration as God.)
The Father was considered to be God by all early professing Christians, including Polycarp – true because St. Polycarp teaches this in his Letter to the Philippians Chapter 12: “…the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ…” The Catholic Church still teaches this today.
Jesus was considered to be God by the true Christians, including Polycarp – true because St. Polycarp teaches this in the prayer he said before his execution: “I praise You for all things, I bless You, I glorify You, along with the everlasting and heavenly Jesus Christ, Your beloved Son, with whom, to You, and the Holy Ghost, be glory both now and to all coming ages. Amen.” Martyrdom of Polycarp Chapter 14. The Catholic Church still teaches this today.
The Kingdom of God was taught by Polycarp - true because the Martyrdom of Polycarp, which was composed by his students and represents his teachings, mentions the Kingdom of God several times in Chapters 20-22, and he also mentions it in his Letter to the Philippians Chapters 2 and 5 (in quotations from the New Testament). The Catholic Church still teaches this today.
Passover was kept on the 14th of Nisan [by] Polycarp – true because St. Irenaeus, who knew St. Polycarp personally, mentions that St. Polycarp observed Easter (which was called Passover) on the same day as the Jews. (This is in St. Irenaeus’s letter to Pope St. Victor, the text of which is included in Eusebius’s Church History Book 5 Chapter 24.) St. Polycarp also indicated that it was okay to celebrate it when the pope did, which was not on the 14th of Nisan but always on the nearest Sunday to that. The fact that he was okay with this is mentioned by St. Irenaeus in the same document which discusses St. Polycarp’s custom of observing Easter on the 14th of Nisan. The Catholic Church still allows Eastern churches to follow a different custom from the pope on this subject. (In fact, this is a great early example of the distinction between doctrines and disciplines: there was only a Discipline regarding when to celebrate Easter/Passover, but on matters of Faith there was no disagreement.)
The Resurrection of the dead was taught Polycarp - true because he very strongly condemns the opinion that there is no resurrection in his Letter to the Philippians Chapter 7. Also, he mentions the resurrection of the dead in Chapter 2 of his Letter to the Philippians and in the prayer he said before his execution. (Martyrdom of Polycarp Chapter 14) The Catholic Church still teaches this today.
The Ten Commandments were observed by the apostolic and true post-apostolic Christians, including Polycarp – true because he mentions keeping the Ten Commandments in his Letter to the Philippians Chapter 4. The Catholic Church still teaches this today.
A Binitarian view, that acknowledged the Holy Spirit, was held by the apostolic and post-apostolic true Christian leaders, like Polycarp – not true because St. Polycarp contradicts this view in the prayer he said before his execution, as recorded in Martyrdom of Polycarp Chapter 14. The divinity of the Holy Spirit is also taught in Chapter 22 of the Martyrdom of Polycarp, which was composed by his students and represents his teachings.
[cont’d next post]