Pope Francis canonizes 3 saints; 13 other sainthood causes advance [CWN]

In an April 3 audience with the prefect of the Congregation for the Causes of Saints, Pope Francis canonized three blesseds by the process of “equivalent canonization.” The three are …

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What is equivalent canonization?

And can somebody give a quick recap on the requirements for sainthood? It is my understanding that postmortal miracles are required for each saint. Is there some insight as to what miracles occurred for these newly canonized saints? I’d be interested to know.

Quoted from the link in the OP

In equivalent canonization-- a procedure described by Pope Benedict XIV in the eighteenth century-- the Pope waives the usual judicial process and declares that a blessed’s liturgical cult is extended to the universal Church.

If the normal process (requiring miracles after death) is waived, how can one be sure that a person is in heaven?

Now i understand some people live very publically holy lives, but there is such a thing as private sin after all.

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