Prayer & fasting & penance

Could someone help me understand what the teaching is for fasting. I have heard of prayer & fasting as well as penance & fasting. I don’t recall Jesus fasting much although he did mention fasting related to beginning His ministry in the desert (as spiritual discipline?), when the bridegroom is not with them (in mourning/crisis) and another story where prayer & fasting was needed to get rid of a demon (grave evil). Could someone provide or point me to more information regarding fasting?

Fasting was sometimes done as preparation for something important.

*While they were worshiping the Lord and fasting, the Holy Spirit said, “Set apart for me Barnabas and Saul for the work to which I have called them.” Then after fasting and praying they laid their hands on them and sent them off. (Acts 13:2-3)

And when they had appointed elders for them in every church, with prayer and fasting they committed them to the Lord in whom they believed. (Acts 14:23)*

Fasting was also a spiritual discipline to fight the “lust of the flesh”.

The lust of the eyes is fought with almsgiving.
The pride of life is fought with prayer.
The lust of the flesh is fought with fasting.

-Tim-

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