So I was reading some general discussion on the titled topic, and here are a few excerpts:
adl (justice) they affirmed that man has free will, which is necessary "because of Divine justice." But as in Albert Camus and the Existentialists, "free will" can turn into fate through coincidence or factors out of one's control. Divine Justice also creates consequences for both man and God. The early Shiites believed that God created and determined men’s acts; present day Shi`ites, like present day Calvinists, believe in free will along with predestination (original Calvinists believed in absolute predestination)…”
tazilites also asserted that God does what is best (salah or aslah) for the world he has created; that God compensates the saved for sufferings they endured in life. What makes this idea of Divine justice scandalous, however, is that it means that what a man does obliges God; it puts God on an equal plane with man; if a man does a good act, God must react accordingly, if a man does an evil act God must react accordingly. What the Mutazilite Divine justice means, therefore, is reciprocity between man and God. This particular point drove al-
Ashari, a rehabilitated Mu`tazilite who turned on the school, berserk. It made him affirm that God can punish the just if He wants and reward the guilty if He wants…”
arites claimed, not without reason, that Mutazilitism “made God into a servant of man,” because it made him respond to human acts and made God, as they put it, into “the impregnator of women.” The idea of salah became the point on which al-Ash
ari revolted against the Mutazilites, neatly showing its weakness.
By the third principle they meant heaven and hell but also gratification and retribution in life, just as Rockeller said. They believed that if someone went to hell, it was forever, he would not leave by reason of Divine Mercy or intercession. (Reciprocity, see above, limits God’s ability to act; the Ash
arites, on the contrary, believe that sins may be pardoned even in hell, or that a believer may be withdrawn from hell once his sins are "expiated.") Present day Shiites generally accept that a sinner can be saved from Hell— not because God is All-Powerful, but because, ironically, of the power of the Imams; THEY can change the course of the cosmic machine although they could not change their own erroneous course of action…*"
What is the Catholic positions on what is discussed, and best apologetics to understand the positions?
Thanks in advance and God bless.