There is nothing in Scriptures that demonstrates anything… this passage, as many others, are basically left alone.
Since this is a type of Christ’s Priesthood (I believe not just a type but an actual appearance of Jesus) I doubt that the Levites would want to engage any discourse on the topic; yet, if you check with Jewish sources you might find something written about it.
I glanced through it… there seems to be some interesting reading (whole bunch of Messiahs, all seeming to proceed from somewhat divine origins)… but it does not address key issues such as the appearance and disappearance of Melchizedek, the bread and wine, the paying of the tithe, and, though being both king and priest is alluded to as pagan custom, the fact that it is said the Melchizedek is king of Salem (Israel) hundreds of years prior to Israel’s existence (both as territory and as nation) is clearly ignored…
Interestingly, though, nothing is mentioned on the issue of a different Priesthood that would replace the Levite’s.
Salem (“Peace”) was supposed to be the old name for Jerusalem. And that some settlement was already there in the area, occupied by Semitic language speakers, is not particularly farfetched, because any defensible hill in the Middle East was likely to have some little hill fort and settlement on it by that point; and there were lots of Semitic tribes around.
Later, Salem became a poetic name for either Jerusalem or all of Israel, just as the entire Roman or Babylonian Empires could be referred to by the names of their capital cities.
…yet, the fact remains that there was no nation or governance to be identified as Jerusalem or the Judaic kingdom–the Twelve tribes did not come into effect till after the Egyptian exodus… many hundreds of years later.
But do remember, that, of course, it is our contention that the Jews fundamentally misinterpret parts of the Old Testament, hence the failure to recognize Jesus as Messiah. Modern Judaism, in other words, does not faithfully render the texts of the Old Testament, even as they were intended to be understood in OT times. For example, we hold that the prophets foretold the coming of our Lord; the Jews deny this. That’s not to say there’s nothing valuable in Jewish sources, but it must be remembered that it is the Church which faithfully interprets not only the New Testament, but also the Old Testament.