This is my first post here on Catholic Answers. A friend recommended that I come here to look for answers. I apologize that I do not know how to word my questions well. In fact, what I am posting are a series of points which may or may not be correct as well as questions concerning these points. They will probably not be in any intelligible order, but I am going to try and approach them as a single line of reasoning. This post will revolve primarily around the nature of the Son, and I was hoping that those with more experience in Tradition and Scripture could correct any mistakes I am making, affirm any correct conclusions, and give Catholic-grounded answers to those questions which can be answered. Thank you:
The Triune God consists of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. God is transcendent and eternal. Therefore, the Trinity is also eternal. Therefore, the Son is eternal.
The Son is God Incarnate, the God-Man, and is both fully man and fully divine. The Son takes his humanity wholly from Mary. The sacrifice of the Son is the key to salvation. We say that the Immaculate Conception was a gift granted by the future sacrifice of the Son. We also say that men born before the crucifixion look forward to the sacrifice of the Son even as we look backwards to it. It is through this model that the sacrifice of the Son becomes a gift to all peoples of all ages. Essentially, God does what he wants with time, His creation, and not the other way around.
Man has free-will. It is in using this free-will that we have the capacity to sin, and it is also by this free-will that we can choose holiness. However, all humans (with the exception of Mary) are born with the taint of Original Sin. This Original Sin, a result of the Fall, corrupted what was a perfect creation. Therefore, we can say that at one time prior to the Fall all humans were perfect. God, as an omniscient, omnipotent, and omnipresent being, knew that man would sin. Does this leave the possibility that man might have avoided sin? How do we understand the advent of sin within a linear timeline and the redemptive mission of the eternal Son? It seems that the Son had to exist eternally for the purpose of salvation before there were humans to be saved, and before humans had even made the choice to sin.
How do we understand the human (created) nature of the Son in terms of an eternal and transcendent God? That is, if there was a finite point where the transcendent God brought the universe into being, then how was an aspect of Himself part of that created universe prior to its creation? When the Bible says that God made man in His own image, could I take that to mean that God LITERALLY made man in His own image (since the Son would have already born the body of the creatures which He was about to make)?
I have heard it said that Mary did not need to accept God’s plan for her. The conclusion must be that the Son could have theoretically taken his humanity from another woman. Of course, God knew that Mary would say yes, but God’s omniscience does not cancel out our free-will. How do we understand the Son, who takes His humanity from a mortal woman, as an eternal being when Mary had yet to say yes to God?