Thank you for reading and engaging with me on this topic. This a topic that has troubled me for some time. I see no way to reconcile what the Church requires us to believe about being descended from just one man and one woman with what we now know from the study of human genomes.
Humani Generis - Paragraph 37 clearly states that the Catholic Church teaching is that all true men take their generation from Adam as the first parent of all. Any position positing multiple parents is erroneous. The reason it is erroneous is that original sin, as drawn from “the sources of revealed truth and the documents of the Teaching Authority of the Church,” only works if it is an actual sin performed by one person, who passed it on to everyone else as if it was their own. Pope Pius XII is very clear on the factual propositions that under lie the doctrine of original sin. There can only have been two parents of all of the human race now existing. No person alive could have a first human ancestor that is not Adam or Eve. This is the one testable fact taken literally from the first chapter of Genesis. The other fact drawn from Genesis is that human souls are specially created by God, which is not a testable proposition.
As time has passed, the evidence showing the intricacies of human evolution (and all evolution) have increased exponentially. We have found even more species of human that coexisted with Homo Sapiens on this planet, and we have genomes now for two ancient human species that we interbred with (Neanderthal and Denosovians). All of the evidence shows (as common sense would suggest), that at no point have we ever been descended from just two fully human bodies. Even, when just looking at the portions of genomes that are passed exclusively from either a female or male (mitochondrial DNA and the Y-Chromosome) the last common male and female ancestors for just those small bits lived at least 180,000 thousand years apart. Originally, they were thought to live closer in time to each other (but still not contemporaries), but then a new more ancient Y-Chromosome family group was discovered. Apologists like to point to Mitochondrial Eve and an example of how science points the the truths of revelation. This is not just a stretch, it is an outright misunderstanding of the science.
For information regarding the study of ancient human geneomes, I recommend any lecture of youtube by Svante Paabo of the Max Plank Institute or by David Reich author of the book “Who We Are and How We Got Here: Ancient DNA and the New Science of the Human Past,” Published in 2018.