The operative word is “I” Jesus, Himself. Thus, this quote is in reference to the Catholic Eucharist.
Note that the whole passage, Matthew 28: 16-20, takes place after the Resurrection. It is sometimes called the Great Commission or the Commissioning of the Disciples. Verse 20 is “teaching them to observe all that I have commanded you. And behold, I am with you always, until the end of the age.” (See John 6:1-71, as the discourse for Jesus being with us.)
Remember that there are two kinds of time, temporal and eternal. They are not in opposition to one another. The difference is that temporal ceases, eternal continues.
A related passage, regarding Jesus being with us, is John 14: 15-21 which is part of the Last Supper discourses. “I will not leave you orphans; I will come to you.” These verses are typical in that different layers of meaning coincide. The coming of the Holy Spirit coincides with the continual presence of Jesus in His Church. Jesus present then leads to His presence now in the Catholic Eucharist. Our temporal presence on this earth looks forward to the promised presence with God for eternity.
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