[quote="boastinjesus, post:1, topic:258348"]
I'm trying to get my answers from Catholics themselves, so forgive me if I make mistakes or phrase this awkwardly:
How is a person saved? Protestants would just say repent and believe in Jesus as God, Lord, Savior. Do I have to confess to a priest to be saved? Do I have to do the 7 sacraments? Are Protestants who pray to Jesus and repent going to heaven?
Step 1: Get baptized.
Step 2: Die in a state of grace. Step 2 alternate: Go into a state of mortal sin by committing a mortal sin.
Step 3 (if one takes Step 2 alternate): Go confess all your mortal sins to a priest to get into a state of grace once more.
Step 4 (if one takes Step 2 alternate): Die in a state of grace.
So basically, get baptized, then die in a state of grace (state free from mortal sin). That's what Catholics ultimately believe gets you to heaven. However, this doesn't mean you'll go right there. You could very well confess, die right after, and spend quite a long time in purgatory. Time in purgatory can be removed by receiving graces attached to doing indulgences, but that's a whole different ballgame than confession.
About the Protestants... Well, Catholics view Protestants as intrinsically seriously flawed in their theology, and even if that was corrected, it still wouldn't matter, because the authority issue of not submitting to the Pope is still in the way.
You can't just "do" the seven sacraments, and certainly not all of them. In fact, you can only "hold" or be "affected" by six of them at once usually. IE, you can't be under Holy Orders and have the sacrament of Matrimony at the same time. There are many instances in which priests can be married, but you'll find that at least in the United States, in which Latin Rite Catholicism reigns supreme as far as numbers go, 99% or more of priests are not. So no, just by receiving sacraments does not get you into heaven.
As far as if Protestants go to heaven. Well, maybe. The Catholic Church holds that Protestant baptisms are valid, that is, they are the same as Catholic baptisms and do the same things as long as a Trinitarian formula ("I baptize you in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit. Amen.") is used. So theoretically, if a Protestant was baptized correctly, then got shot in the head and died a half a second later, he would go to heaven, because Catholics view baptism as the "entrance" sacrament to the Church, ergo, to heaven. However, if a Protestant is baptized and falls into a state of mortal sin after the baptism, which is very easy in our world today, especially since many "small" sins are considered mortal sins, then he would, according to Catholic teaching, go to hell. The thing is, even though Protestant baptisms are fully valid, no Protestant "minister," "reverend," "priest," etc., can hear confessions. So if a Protestant falls in to a state of mortal sin, there's no way that he can "get out," because the only way out is through confession, and no Protestant clergyman can hear confessions, and Catholic priests cannot hear confessions and grant absolution to Protestants. The only other way to have mortal sins forgiven is to be in a state of what is called "perfect contrition." But, part of being in a state of perfect contrition is, arguably, hard, even for a Catholic. To be in a state of perfect contrition, one must have as a desire to go to confession, but be impeded from going for whatever reason. So, theoretically, for a Protestant to be in a state of perfect contrition, he would have to have as a desire to: 1. become Catholic and 2. go to confession. The first would be required because the second cannot be so without the first. Then, if that condition was satisfied, the Protestant would, theoretically, be in a state of perfect contrition, and if he died in that state, he could get to heaven. Perfect contrition is as close to just "repenting and being forgiven" as Catholics get. Disclaimer: I don't even know if Protestants can be in a state of perfect contrition. Someone correct me if I'm wrong.
What you should keep in mind is, it's very hard, according to Catholic teaching, for Protestants to get to heaven. It CAN happen, theoretically. And it may have before, and it may in the future. But, it's infinitely harder than if you're Catholic. Again, this is according to Catholic teaching.
Catholic teaching holds that you can't just "accept Jesus as [my] personal Lord and Savior and get 'saved'." It takes more than that. It takes an actual baptism, with water, with the right words, and subsequent sin-free death.
I hope I've been helpful. It's so hard to explain Catholic stuff. I tried to be as all-encompassing as possible.