I’m not expert on the Muslim face, but there are a few things I see there that make me think this is merely semantics.
It says that He said to the angels, and all of them bowed, except Iblis. Which indicates that Iblis was an angel as well, or else it wouldn’t matter if he bowed or not. After all God said to the angles, not to anyone else. Now Iblis was one of the Jinns… which means a Jinn is a type of angel?
So if we look:
And (remember) when We said to the angels: “Prostrate yourselves before Adam.” And they prostrated except Iblis (Satan), he refused and was proud and was one of the disbelievers (disobedient to Allah). S. 2:34
And (remember) when your Lord said to the angels: “I am going to create a man (Adam) from sounding clay of altered black smooth mud. So, when I have fashioned him completely and breathed into him (Adam) the soul which I created for him, then fall (you) down prostrating yourselves unto him.” So, the angels prostrated themselves, all of them together. Except Iblis (Satan), - he refused to be among the prostrators. S. 15:28-31
And (remember) when We said to the angels: “Prostrate yourselves to Adam.” They prostrated (all) except Iblis (Satan), who refused. S. 20:116
(Remember) when your Lord said to the angels: “Truly, I am going to create man from clay”. So when I have fashioned him and breathed into him (his) soul created by Me, then you fall down prostrate to him." So the angels prostrated themselves, all of them: Except Iblis (Satan) he was proud and was one of the disbelievers. S. 38:71-74
All of these indicate that Satan (Iblis) was an angel. So either angels are jinns, and jinns are angels… which explains why the authors of the Bible felt it not necessary to define the distinction between them… or the Quran contradicts itself.
Another question you have is how can a Satan be punished by the flames of the lake of fire? God is all powerful, he isn’t limited by concepts of physics and mortal existence. The fire of God is more powerful than any of his creation, so I have no doubt that if he desires to punish someone with fire, then no matter what they are composed of… it will happen. But the concept is that eternal exile into the lake of fire burns precisely because it is separation from God in all ways. The love of God comforts those in his presence who believe, purifies those who are impure, and burns the wicked. It’s more than just fire that must consume combustibles.
The last one is merely a straw-man. There is no proof that the Septuagint or the bible have been corrupted, and the more we undercover archaeologically indicates that it hasn’t been (though many modern translations attempt to do so.) That’s what the Church is here to do, protect the bible from corruption.