Praise be to Jesus Christ.
The comments made so far are very good. I was especially impressed with Chesster’s reference to Exodus.
I also agree with dylanschrader’s comments about phenomenological language, even though what I am about to say may seem to conflict with them. Nevertheless, I think, when both ideas are considered, one can see that they are both true of the sort of references that you are concerned about. In fact, these references are part of the Holy Spirit’s subtle and complex interweaving of images and ideas in the Scriptures.
The language used in these passages is a sort of elaborately interwoven knot with no loose ends. Think of Celtic Knotwork as an image of this aspect of the Scriptures.
We call the Body of Christ “bread” because it is the whole Christ, who is “the Bread of Life” (John 6:35 & 48), and “the true Bread from Heaven” (John 6:32). Hence, even after it is changed from common bread into the Body of Christ, it is still properly called “Bread.”
Similarly, Jesus can properly call His own Blood “the fruit of the vine,” because He said, “I am the true vine, and my Father is the gardener” (John 15:1) and “I am the vine, you are the branches” (John 15:5).
(Please note, the two cases are not parallel. Though it is proper to refer to the Host as “bread” both before and after the consecration, it would be wrong to refer to the Sacred Blood as “wine.” Before consecration the cup contains the fruit of a grape vine and thus “wine.” However, after the consecration, though it can still be called “the fruit of the vine,” as the fruit of Jesus the “true vine,” it cannot be called “wine” any longer but is properly the “Blood of Christ.” I think you will find these usages consistently honored in the Liturgy, as E.C. has indicated.)
As for 1 Corinthians 11:17-34, it might be helpful to note that in the Temple practice at Jerusalem the concepts of Sacrifice and feast were never separate. The Passover Sacrifice was only one example of a sacrifice which entailed feasting as part of the Liturgy. In many of the sacrifices made in the temple, the flesh of the victim was divided, part given to God in the flame on the Altar, part consumed by the priests, and the rest returned to the worshiper, who shared it with his family and friends. I am given to understand that the Hebrew word “Qorban” translated as “sacrifice” comes from the root meaning “to draw near.” (See, jewfaq.org/cgi-bin/search.cgi?Keywords=sacrifice.) The image is of a meal shared with God as a “growing closer” between God and His people. This same liturgical action is continued in the Holy Mass, which is both a sacrifice and a meal. This is not a contradiction or confusion. It is perfectly consistent as a completion of the Old Law of worship as practiced in the Temple and fulfilled in the New Law and the Holy Mass.
For references for the practices under the Old Law, take a look at the rules for Sacrifice in the Old Testament. It is also interesting to look at the article, on the website Judaism 101, called “Qorbanot: Sacrifices and Offerings, at jewfaq.org/qorbanot.htm.
Once these sorts of connections are seen, it is amazing how perfectly integrated and interwoven all of these aspects of Scripture and Liturgy are. It is startling to consider that all of these connections were intended by God before either grapes or bread were made. The Mass can be seen in the earliest sacrifices recorded in the Old Testament. It is woven throughout the Scriptures and throughout the fabric of all creation. Praised be the name of the Lord.
The Peace of Christ be with you.