It is interesting that when Joseph Smith was inventing Mormonism he read the Bible and essentially came up with all seven sacraments the Catholic Church has. The Mormons have baptism, confirmation, the Lord’s Supper, laying on of hands for the priesthood, confession, anointing of the sick, and marriage. They of course have additional ordinances in the temple. Their baptism includes the concept of baptismal regeneration in which a person has to be baptized to receive forgiveness of sins. They have to confess all serious sins to their Bishop in order to be forgiven. The only difference in their confession is that often if they have committed serious sins they might be excommunicated for a year or two as part of their repentance process and then have to be rebaptized.
Protestants generally only have two sacraments, baptism and the Lord’s Supper. The Mormons take the Bible more literally when it comes to these matters. The LDS weren’t copying the Catholics because they were generally ignorant about Catholics on the American frontier and were anti-Catholic to the extent they knew anything about Catholicism.
Also if I am not mistaken so please correct me if I am, most or some Protestants view Baptism as an ordenance and certinly do not view the Lods Supper as the Catholic Church does with regards to the Most Holy Eucharist.
I wouldn’t consider confession to the bishop as an ordinance of the LDS church, and the LDS wouldn’t either. Serious sins do have to be confessed to the bishop and he metes out punishment. Forgiveness comes much, much later oftentimes. The bishop doesn’t actually forgive but will help the person know if they have been forgiven by Heavenly Father because he doesn’t immediately forgive. Sometimes it takes him months or years to forgive someone, hence the LDS bishop disfellowshiping someone or putting him or her on probation.
I don’t know how much Joseph Smith knew about the Catholic Church. He did try to join the Methodist church. They wouldn’t let him join because of his treasure seeking so he decided to start his own church. Joseph came up with the temple ceremonies after he became a Freemason.
LDS doctrine is so far off Christian doctrine that the LDS church really can’t be considered Christian. There may be similarities on the surface between the LDS priesthood ordinances and the sacraments in the Catholic Church, but they are only on the surface. When you dig into what the ordinances and sacraments mean and do, they are very, very different.
Ordinances that require priesthood leader authorization are naming and blessing children, performing baptisms and confirmations, conferring the priesthood and ordaining to a priesthood office, blessing and passing the sacrament, and dedicating graves.
So naming and blessing a child is referred to as an ordinance. Also, at the very bottom the dedication of graves of outlined, but then also states that a graveside prayer is another option if the family so prefers.
The Mormons have different types of marriages. One, is a marriage “Till death do you part”, but the marriage that is more “sacred” to the Mormons is the “Sealing for time and all eternity” This is a solemn occasion that takes place in one of the Mormon temples. Divorce, while not uncommon in the Mormon Church, is highly frowned upon. My understanding that an “unsealing” (temple divorce) needs to be approved from church leadership. As for remarriage, I’m sure there is, but, I don’t know the process.
For a man and woman that have been sealed in the temple and have gone through a civil divorce…the man can remarry in the temple and be sealed to more than one woman. On the other hand, a woman can also remarry but not in the temple. She cannot be sealed to more than one man, so she would need a temple divorce before she could remarry in the temple.
My understanding is that it is the First Presidency (currently Thomas Monson, Henry Eyring and Dieter Uchtdorf) that approves a sealing cancellation. I have some friends who have done it and even in an “easy” case, it takes some time.
A temple marriage sealing is a marriage for time and all eternity, so the marriage lasts in heaven. The doctrine of plural marriage or polygamy is laid out in Section 132 in the Doctrine and Covenants. Men are allowed multiple wives in eternity but women are only allowed one husband. This is why a woman can have a temple marriage sealing with one man.