First I would like to say that if you are so interested in the Constitutions just out of curiosity that is one thing. If you are discerning a vocation then I highly suggest not worrying about the Constitution. Discerning a vocation involves prayer, meditation on the charism, on whether you are called, etc. If you are nitpicking rules then this vocation may not be for you.
First off the constitutions are just a clarification of the Rule and specifics about daily life of a member and the fraternity. Yes there are books and other things that clarify each portion of the Rule and the Constitutions.
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1/What is the definition of a "brother and sister".?
Depends on context. Brother and Sister usually refers to anyone. We are all brothers and sisters in Christ. Sometimes within the constitution it refers to people looking at SFO, other times it refers to actual members etc.
2/What is the definition of a "member", "aspirant".?
Member usually refers to someone that has completed at least the visitation and inquiry stage. "Professed" member usually refers to someone that has completed the Candidacy phase and made their permanent profession. A person that has completed inquiry can do anything a "Professed" member can do except vote or hold office. Sometimes member may be just used as shorthand to both professed and non-professed or one of those, depending on context.
Aspirant is someone seeking to be a member of SFO. Can be any of the stages before permanent profession.
3/What is a "candidate"?.
Similar to aspirant in some contexts, usually refers to someone after the Inquiry stage.
4/In article 37 newcomers are brothers and sisters, but are aspirants in 39.
We are all brothers and sisters in Christ. Like I said before, everything depends on context.
5/Are the brothers and sisters in 37 the same mentioned in article 58?
Section 58 in context would only be talking about professed members. If need be candidates can still be rejected by the fraternity or remove themselves from the process. No formal procedure is required.
...The fact being the Order is intrinsically his.
There is not right to be in an Order. The fraternity/Order may determine that the vocation is not real. If a fraternity feels a calling is not true you can always approach another fraternity.
6/How is conflict of interest reconciled in regards to spiritual directors holding two offices,ie(personal direction as well has decision makers) in the fraternity. ...
Not sure what your issue is here. There are two types of items in SFO. The "Spiritual Assistant" and "Spiritual Directors". A "Spiritual Assistant" is usually a Franciscan from one of the non-SFO Franciscan Orders, that assists the Fraternity. It is highly suggested that they be from one of the non-SFO Franciscan Orders but it isn't a requirement. They are on the council but don't usually vote. There is no conflict of interest. He/she is out to assist the fraternity in living the Franciscan charism.
A spiritual director is someone you find on your own. They are supposed to have undergone complex training to become a spiritual director. There is no requirement that you go to or have any particular person as your spiritual director. Your spiritual director can be your parish priest, your parish deacon, a Franciscan Conventual brother/priest, a Poor Clare nun or a friend that has undergone the training. It is up to you. If you picked someone that sits on the Fraternity council or someone like that, the training is supposed to tell them how to deal with conflicts.
How is this decision an example "living the gospel/church?.
Not sure what you mean.
How can a candidate be reassured that what he says in discretion to him will not impact the SD's counsel decision to accept him?
If you spiritual director is a priest and you said it in confession, then the seal of confessional comes into play. If your spiritual director is not a priest, there is no guarantee, but from what I understand there are promises and stuff that people that take the official training to be spiritual directors take to become one. There is no requirement to have a spiritual director to enter SFO. It is highly suggested. You do have to get a recommendation from someone like a pastor, someone in the Franciscan community, etc. before joining.
In 7 and 8, we owe it to the Catholic....
7/Since a whole years striving ...
Discernment is a long process. You could find you go through the entire process and come up to the day of your permanent profession and find out that you aren't really called. If you feel that your time doing this is lost then maybe it isn't for you. Any time investigating your spiritual life should be viewed as a win/win situation. Making sure you are doing the right thing is part of the process and should be viewed as a good thing.
8/ What provision is made to ensure the professed are well trained in character and personality types...
No guarantees on anything. Most formation teams are pretty experienced and have seen many people of different types. There are guidelines, checklists, and things like that. Sometimes it can be gut feels and things like that. The decision isn't just one person, it is the formation team, the council, and possibly the sponsor that is picked by the candidate upon entering candidacy.
9/Are SFO fraternities prone to stereotyping? Are final acceptance decisions made in part by an unconscious desire to admit a certain personality type?
Not from what I have seen. But like any organization run by humans there can be bad apples.