This thread is a good spot for a plug for Karl Keating’s book on Catholicism and Fundamentalism (1988). There are a lot of topics of disagreement between Catholics and protestants and a good number of them are treated in this book.
Fr. John Corapi has a great six-part series of talks (available in EWTN catalogue) in which he expounds on Dei Verbum , the Vatican II document on sacred scripture. He points out well, too, the assistance that the Catechism gives on this matter.
Paragraph 95 of the catechism says the Catholic position so well without quibbling: “It is clear therefore that, in the supremely wise arrangement of God, Tradition, Scripture, and the Magisterium of the Church are so connected and associated that one of them cannot stand without the others.” which is a quote from Dei Verbum.
The section in CCC that should be consulted about scripture is from paragraph 51 to 141.
Interpreting this, Corapi held up the CCC in one hand and the Bible in the other, and he made the dramatic and graphic statement that without the CCC (that is, the teaching of the Church), the Bible makes no sense at all.
Protestants don’t accept many Catholic concepts, such as the idea of a centralized magisterium. As Keating points out, they so often have a preconception about the meaning of scripture. So, they have diverging views about the role of Peter in the gospels, in particular, and so many other things in general.
As Fr. John Trigilio pointed out in a homily on EWTN this week, the first problem for protestants is that the word “bible” is not in the Bible. So, if they were to say that they believe in the Bible alone, which is what is meant by sola scriptura, then they fall apart immediately because they 1) can’t defend the bible without appealing to an human authority, divinely guided, which defined the bible, and 2) there is no such principle as bible-alone in the Bible.
- A third point to think about is that of the history of the church. The writings of the early church fathers are not considered inspired at the same level of scripture, but they are useful to document the beliefs in the church. As much as the Bible was not assembled for a couple hundred years, it took an authority guided by the Spirit to collect the inspired books. In the mean time, the understandings of ideas is well-documented early in the Church. There were errors all along, but the Church with the Spirit was there to keep things straightened out.
There are other threads on this, but the practice of infant baptism is a classic. Protestants dissented from this after the Reformation, because it was not literally in the Bible. But, the bases for it are well founded. See Keating for an explanation in detail.