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Eastern & Oriental Catholic Churches sui iuris
There are 23 Churches sui iuris that, together, constitute the Catholic Church - 1 Western and 22 Eastern and Oriental Churches. The term sui iuris means, literally, “of their own law”, or self-governing. All 23 are in communion with Rome. Obviously, the most well-known and largest is the Latin Church.
Eastern and Oriental Catholic Churches generally represent bodies of persons whose ancestors entered into communion with Rome from the Eastern or Oriental Orthodox Churches. As a consequence, there is a counterpart Eastern or Oriental Orthodox Church to every Eastern or Oriental Catholic Church except two - the Maronite Catholic Church and the Italo-Grieco-Albanian Byzantine Catholic Church. The usual reason advanced as to why these two Churches have no counterpart among the Orthodox Churches is that neither was ever separated from Rome.
Churches that utilize the Byzantine Rite should technically be termed Eastern Catholic Churches, with the remainder being referred to as Oriental Catholic Churches. This distinction mirrors the one that is made among our counterpart or Sister (Orthodox) Churches (i.e., the Churches known as Eastern Orthodox also serve their Divine Liturgy according to the Byzantine Rite; the Oriental Orthodox do not). In point of fact, however, both “Eastern Catholic” and “Oriental Catholic” are often employed as umbrella terms to encompass all Catholic Churches sui iuris other than the Latin or Western Church.
Oriental Catholic is popularly used as an umbrella term by the Vatican; to confuse the issue, many others are inclined to use Eastern Catholic in that same context]