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I’ve been tempted to write a full synopsis of a cosmological argument that not only demonstrates the existence of something such as an Unmoved Mover but also demonstrates that the Unmoved Mover must be unique, immutable, eternal, perfectly good, omnipotent, and omniscient for some time. However, I’ve until now never felt confident in my ability to make that a reality (and I still have my doubts). I have typed up everything below myself, though I am heavily indebted to Edward Feser’s book Five Proofs Of The Existence Of God to making this possible. There are a handful of borrowed phrases, and in the second half I followed Feser’s argument more closely (and in a much more abbreviated fashion), but I have not just copied and pasted paragraphs from his book. This is something I put together, not me copying verbatim from another work for anyone to read. If this was to be published I would of course need to put proper citations in, but this is an informal argument being made on a social message board, so I believe I’m okay. At the end of the argument I will also address some common objections. Without further ado, let’s begin.
The Argument From Motion
Our everyday experience shows us that things change. An ice cube at room temperature will melt. A rubber ball will melt when heat is applied to it. Our experience also shows that the objects of change do not move (or change) themselves. Ice does not make itself melt into water. Rather, the heat in the air causes the ice cube to heat and melt. Likewise, a rubber ball does not melt on its own, but melts when an external heat source is applied to it.
[This remains true when the concept of heat is analyzed on a more technical level. Heat is the average kinetic energy in a system. The molecules are moving around, and the more average kinetic energy there is the hotter the system is. When a group of molecules with a higher average kinetic energy make contact with a group of molecules with a lower kinetic energy, energy is transferred from one grouping to the other, such that the average kinetic energy evens out over time (assuming a closed system and no other external causes).]
So the actual rubber ball in front of me has the potential to be melted into rubber goo, such that there can be actual rubber goo. A heat source applied to a rubber ball makes actual the potential for that material to be a rubber goo. The potential for rubber goo cannot actualize itself. It must be made actual by an external cause. Furthermore, no potential can actualize itself. Whatever goes from potential to actuality must have a cause (1). This is the Principle of Causality.
Let me present two types of causal series. The first is a linear series. A father begets a son, who begets a son, who begets a son. In this sense, a father is a cause of his son. The grandfather and great-grandfather are also causes. Such a series can continue in an infinite regress without any logical contradictions. If the great-grandfather, grandfather, and father die, it does not affect the son’s own causal power to beget another son or to continue other actions.