The History of the Quran

Muhammad, according to tradition, could neither read nor write, but would simply recite what was revealed to him for his companions to write down and memorize. Adherents to Islam hold that the wording of the Qur’anic text available today corresponds exactly to that revealed to Muhammad himself: words of God delivered to Muhammad through Jibreel (Gabriel).

According to some Muslim traditions, the companions of Muhammad began recording suras in writing before Muhammad died in 632; written copies of various suras during his lifetime are frequently alluded to in the traditions. For instance, in the story of the conversion of Umar ibn al-Khattab (when Muhammad was still at Mecca), his sister is said to have been reading a text of sura Ta-Ha. At Medina, about sixty-five companions are said to have acted as scribes for him at one time or another; the prophet would regularly call upon them to write down revelations immediately after they came.

One tradition has it that the first complete compilation of the Qur’an was made during the rule of the first caliph, Abu Bakr. Zayd ibn Thabit, who had been one of Muhammad’s secretaries, “gathered the Qur’an from various parchments and pieces of bone, and from the chests (i.e. the memories) of men.” This compilation was kept by Hafsa bint Umar, one of Muhammad’s widows, as well as the daughter of Umar, the second caliph.

During the caliphate of Uthman ibn Affan, there were disputes about the recitation of the Qur’an. In response, Uthman decided to codify, standardize, and write down the text. Uthman is said to have commissioned a committee (including Zayd and several prominent members of Quraysh) to produce a standard copy of the text.

Some accounts say that this compilation was based on the text kept by Hafsa. Other stories say that Uthman made his compilation independently, Hafsa’s text was brought forward, and the two texts were found to coincide perfectly. Still other accounts omit any reference to Hafsa.

Some Muslim scholars say that if the Qur’an had been collected by the order of a caliph, it would never have been relegated to the status of a keepsake for one of the prophet’s widows. Possibly the story was invented to move the time of collection closer to Muhammad’s death.

When the compilation was finished, sometime between 650 and 656 CE, Uthman sent out copies of it to the various corners of the Islamic empire.** He ordered the destruction of all copies that differed from it.**

Several manuscripts, including the Samarkand manuscript, are claimed to the original copies sent out by Uthman [1]; however, many scholars, Western and Islamic, doubt that any of the Uthmanic originals remain.

What were the different copies that were destroyed? Islamic traditions say that Abdallah Ibn Masud, Ubay Ibn Ka’b, and Ali, Muhammad’s son-in-law, had preserved versions that differed in some ways from the Uthmanic text that is now accepted by all Muslims. Muslim scholars record certain of the differences between the versions; those recorded consist almost entirely of orthographical and lexical variants, or different verse counts. All three (Ibn Masud, Ubay Ibn Ka’b, and Ali) are recorded as having accepted the Uthmanic text as authoritative.

Uthman’s version was written in an older Arabic script that left out most vowel markings; thus the script could be interpreted and read in various ways. This basic Uthmanic script is called the rasm; it is the basis of several traditions of oral recitation, differing in minor points. In order to fix these oral recitations and prevent any mistakes, scribes and scholars began annotating the Uthmanic rasm with various diacritical marks – dots and the like – indicating how the word was to be pronounced. It is believed that this process of annotation began around 700 CE, soon after Uthman’s compilation, and finished by approximately 900 CE. The Quran text most widely used today is based on the Hafs tradition of recitation, as approved by the eminent Al-Azhar University in Cairo in 1922. (For more information regarding traditions of recitations, see Quranic recitation, below.)


[quote=un_dhimmi]Muhammad, according to tradition, could neither read nor write, but would simply recite what was revealed to him for his companions to write down and memorize. Adherents to Islam hold that the wording of the Qur’anic text available today corresponds exactly to that revealed to Muhammad himself: words of God delivered to Muhammad through Jibreel (Gabriel).

According to some Muslim traditions, the companions of Muhammad began recording suras in writing before Muhammad died in 632; written copies of various suras during his lifetime are frequently alluded to in the traditions. For instance, in the story of the conversion of Umar ibn al-Khattab (when Muhammad was still at Mecca), his sister is said to have been reading a text of sura Ta-Ha. At Medina, about sixty-five companions are said to have acted as scribes for him at one time or another; the prophet would regularly call upon them to write down revelations immediately after they came.

One tradition has it that the first complete compilation of the Qur’an was made during the rule of the first caliph, Abu Bakr. Zayd ibn Thabit, who had been one of Muhammad’s secretaries, “gathered the Qur’an from various parchments and pieces of bone, and from the chests (i.e. the memories) of men.” This compilation was kept by Hafsa bint Umar, one of Muhammad’s widows, as well as the daughter of Umar, the second caliph.

During the caliphate of Uthman ibn Affan, there were disputes about the recitation of the Qur’an. In response, Uthman decided to codify, standardize, and write down the text. Uthman is said to have commissioned a committee (including Zayd and several prominent members of Quraysh) to produce a standard copy of the text.

Uthman’s version was written in an older Arabic script that left out most vowel markings; thus the script could be interpreted and read in various ways. This basic Uthmanic script is called the rasm; it is the basis of several traditions of oral recitation, differing in minor points. In order to fix these oral recitations and prevent any mistakes, scribes and scholars began annotating the Uthmanic rasm with various diacritical marks – dots and the like – indicating how the word was to be pronounced. It is believed that this process of annotation began around 700 CE, soon after Uthman’s compilation, and finished by approximately 900 CE. The Quran text most widely used today is based on the Hafs tradition of recitation, as approved by the eminent Al-Azhar University in Cairo in 1922. (For more information regarding traditions of recitations, see Quranic recitation, below.)



[/quote]

Hi there

So your scholarship is limited to only copy and paste from un-Islamic sources not to mention “unreliable” as well.

The is what you should know to have correct knowledge and understanding.

The Definition of Qur’aan!
So whatever one says other than this fact from Islamic belief is nothing more than hogwash.

Is the Qur’an Miraculous?
Here is tough questions and simple answers.

Preservation of Glorious Qur’aan & Sunnah

Was the entire Qur’aan revealed through archangel Jibrael {AS} (Gabriel)?

These are (above) the Islamic sources and not the “Wikipedia” where anyone who is flipping burgers at McDonalds can post, edit, add and publish his or her gobbledygook.

Regards
Preacher

You do post a lot of stuff without really saying anything.

Lets keep it simple.

  1. Why did Uthman order all other versions / copies of the Quran destroyed ?

  2. If the original quran did not have dicritical marks, does not adding them make the current version a different version ?

[quote=un_dhimmi]You do post a lot of stuff without really saying anything.

Lets keep it simple.

  1. Why did Uthman order all other versions / copies of the Quran destroyed ?
    [/quote]

Hi there

You have already been provided with authentic answers, so if you don’t like that nsswers than it is your problem and not mine. Now if you want to continue to your “can” full of half baked info, then be my guest. I will simply ignore that. You have phrased your questions with distortion and deliberately. Because, had you been interested in the truth, you would have used a better choice of words and phraseology.

You really don’t have any education and knowledge of your own scripture, let alone Qur’an. The answer would really embarrass you as it also shows the falsehood of your scripture, which is as follows:

Excerpt from the link below:

One notable quality of the Greek uncial script was its lack of a separator, between adjacent words as well as sentences, even though separation between words had been used previously in Hebrew writings, and was therefore not unknown. This flaw resulted in a divergence of meanings or rather interpretations for certain verses. Among the most serious example of this is Manuscript p 75 (Bodmer Papyrus XIV-XV) ¹, where John 1:18 can be read as either an only one, God, or God, the only begotten. There is an obvious profound difference in the two choices; the latter implies the existence of a Trinity, while nothing in the former supports the absurd notion of Trinity. In fact, the literal translation is ‘a unique God’, though it is never given as such {P. W. Comfort, Early Manuscript & Translations of the New Testament, Baker Books 1990, p. 105} We find similar serious problem in John 1:34; John 7:53-8:11 {ibid, p. 107 & 115} One can go on citing the entire New Testament, however, I would suggest the readers to read the books (sources) I have cited in this treatise as my reference.

Who Borrowed From Whom?

Regaards
Preacher

Interesting, lots of words without really saying very much.

Let me understand this clearly.

Are you saying Uthman did not order all other copies of the quran to be burnt ?

There are no diacrytical differences that Utham resolved ?

Please, don’t tell me to visit that site which is nothing but garbage : not only does it contain garbage, it also has some of the worst site design I have ever seen.

This is true, Preacher.

Yes, Uthman standardized the qur’an.

The reason all of the others were ordered destroyed is because there was no logical way those other qur’ans were the real thing, since so few qur’ans existed, and almost all were in what is today saudi arabia.

As far as the grammar, the way its open to interpretation.

It is very easy to find a qur’an that is written by someone who knows classical arabic, and knows where the punctuation goes. However this is also one of the miracles of the qur’an. Every time there is a word that is ambiguous and may be two different words both the words make sense in the sentence and both are valid.

I, being a non-arab speaker, do have a qur’an with all the little marks about the grammar. However most of the qur’ans that you find are like the Uthman ones, without all the little marks.

I appreciate your honesty Eetaq.

:thumbsup:

As muslims we need not be ashamed of our religion or history, so when your right your right.

Dhimmi, if you see this, Im wondering how old you are (If you care to know, Im 17)

Im not sure, but I think I have an idea… :wink:

Lets just say I’m old enough to be your father, ok ?

:wink:

[quote=un_dhimmi]Lets just say I’m old enough to be your father, ok ?

:wink:
[/quote]

AH HHHHAAA!!!

As of june 3rd you are 35.

If only…

:crying:

Is it also true that Muhammad is of a pagan descent?

Pio

The entire area was plytheist when Muhammed first brought the revelation

DISCLAIMER: The views and opinions expressed in these forums do not necessarily reflect those of Catholic Answers. For official apologetics resources please visit www.catholic.com.