[quote="JD27076, post:1, topic:287177"]
Regarding the Pentarchy which included: Rome, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, and Constantinople.
2 points to address that usually come up with this subject[LIST=1]
*]Pope NOT 1st among equals
"3. In Christian literature, the expression begins to be used in the East when, from the fifth century, the idea of the Pentarchygained ground, according to which there are five Patriarchs at the head of the Church, with the Church of Rome having the first place among these *patriarchal sister Churches. In this connection, however, it needs to be noted that no Roman Pontiff ever recognized this equalization of the sees or accepted that only a primacy of honour be accorded to the See of Rome.It should be noted too thatthis patriarchal structure typical of the East never developed in the West.
- The expression appears again in two letters of the Metropolitan Nicetas of Nicodemia (in the year 1136) and the Patriarch John X Camaterus (in office from 1198 to 1206), in which they protested that Rome, by presenting herself as mother and teacher, *would annul their authority.In their view, Rome is only the first among *sisters of equal dignity."
I'll just start with Nicea and work backwards..
~ 325 a.d., The Nicene creed makes it an article of faith that we believe in "One Holy Catholic and Apostolic Church"
How is "Catholic" defined so we know specifics?
~180 a.d. Bp Irenaeus, who was a disciple of Bp Polycarp who was a disciple of St John the apostle, uses “Catholic Church” in his writings, and “Catholic Church” isn't understood in a generic sense.
In “Against Heresies”
Bk 1 Ch 10 v 3 Irenaeus names the Church the Catholic Church, that he is defending.
“For in reference to these points, and others of a like nature, the apostle exclaims: Oh! The depth of the riches both of the wisdom and knowledge of God; how unsearchable are His judgments, and His ways past finding out! Romans 11:33 But [the superior skill spoken of] is not found in this, that any one should, beyond the Creator and Framer [of the world], conceive of the Enthymesis of an erring Æon, their mother and his, and should thus proceed to such a pitch of blasphemy; nor does it consist in this, that he should again falsely imagine, as being above this [fancied being], a Pleroma at one time supposed to contain thirty, and at another time an innumerable tribe of Æons, as these teachers who are destitute of truly divine wisdom maintain; while the Catholic Church possesses one and the same faith throughout the whole world, as we have already said.”
Q: How does Irenaeus further define the Catholic Church that he is defending?
"Against Heresies", Bk 3, Ch 3, v 2-3
- "Since, however, it would be very tedious, in such a volume as this, to reckon up the successions of all the Churches, we do put to confusion all those who, in whatever manner, whether by an evil self-pleasing, by vainglory, or by blindness and perverse opinion, assemble in unauthorized meetings; [we do this, I say,] by indicating that tradition derived from the apostles, of the very great, the very ancient, and universally known Church founded and organized at Rome by the two most glorious apostles, Peter and Paul; as also [by pointing out] the faith preached to men, which comes down to our time by means of the successions of the bishops. For it is a matter of necessity that every Church should agree with** this Church**, on account of its preeminent authority, that is, the faithful everywhere, inasmuch as the tradition has been preserved continuously by those [faithful men] who exist everywhere."
Q: yeah but one could say, which "Church" is "this Church" that is the Catholic Church, the one that has pre-eminent authority, that all the Churches everywhere must agree with?
Here's his answer
- "the apostles, then, having founded and built up the Church, committed into the hands of Linus the office of the episcopate. Of this Linus, Paul makes mention in the Epistles to Timothy. To him succeeded* Anacletus*; and after him, in the third place from the apostles, Clement was allotted the bishopric. This man, as he had seen the blessed apostles, and had been conversant with them, might be said to have the preaching of the apostles still echoing [in his ears], and their traditions before his eyes.
[snip] for space
To this Clement there succeeded Evaristus. Alexander *followed Evaristus; then, sixth from the apostles, *Sixtus *was appointed; after him, *Telephorus, who was gloriously martyred then Hyginus; after him, Pius; then after him, Anicetus. Soter having succeeded Anicetus,* Eleutherius* does now, in the twelfth place from the apostles, hold the inheritance of the episcopate. In this order, and by this succession, the ecclesiastical tradition from the apostles, and the preaching of the truth, have come down to us. And this is most abundant proof that there is one and the same vivifying faith, which has been preserved in the Church from the apostles until now, and handed down in truth."
Irenaeus makes the following connections, "the Church" = The "Catholic Church" = all Churches in union with the Church of Rome
That's why Irenaeus lists all the popes of Rome down to his time, so there is no mistaking which Church is "this Church" i.e. the "Catholic Church" he is speaking of, and that all Churches everywhere must agree with, specifically on account of its pre-eminent authority. And he writes where he received this teaching
*]the apostles Peter and Paul
*]apostolic tradition faithfully handed down to his time
Ignatius bishop of Antioch from **~69 to ~107 a.d. **also a disciple of St John the apostle uses the name "Catholic Church" , (letter to Smyrna). He refers to the Church of Rome as the Church that holds the presidency. (letter to the Romans)
Because the great split, Catholicism and Orthodoxy never existed, only Christendom. However, after the split. What the heck went on????? Who is right?? And what is the historical proof?
The split didn't contain doctrinal errors[Maybe Papacy], but historical and political.
Being united (one) to the chair of Peter, + being united (one) to each other, is Our Lord's prayer. That is the Catholic Church. Division is condemned in scripture