Well the topic here as I understand it was “the Qur’an and Jesus’ crucifixion”. I have a perspective on this I’m willing to share here. By stressing the issue that Jesus was physically crucified… and that His Spirit ascended reconciles Muslims and Christians …
Read Surih 4 verse 157:
That they said (in boast), “We killed Christ Jesus the son of Mary, the Messenger of Allah”;- but they killed him not, nor crucified him, but so it was made to appear to them, and those who differ therein are full of doubts, with no (certain) knowledge, but only conjecture to follow, for of a surety they killed him not:-
Translation of A.Yusuf Ali
and we read in Surih 2:154
And say not of those who are slain in the way of Allah: “They are dead.” Nay, they are living, though ye perceive (it) not.
The verse focuses on the reality of the spirit of the martyr who was slain! The spirit is living.
The same can be said in my view to the Surih 4:157… while the corporeal body was crucified the Spirit of Jesus was not killed…but in verse 158:
Nay, Allah raised him up unto Himself; and Allah is Exalted in Power, Wise;-
There is also very lovely way this is confirmed by the Gospel of Luke…
The last words of Jesus on the cross according to the Gospel of Luke translated in the Jerusalem Bible read:
…and when Jesus had cried out in a loud voice, He said, “Father, into Your hands I commit my Spirit” with these words he breathed His last.
~ Luke 22:46
So Jesus committed His Spirit to God and the Qur’an says Allah raised him up unto Himself.
Surih 4:157 is also translated in a similar way by Pickthal:
And because of their saying: We slew the Messiah, Jesus son of Mary, Allah’s messenger - they slew him not nor crucified him, but it appeared so unto them; and lo! those who disagree concerning it are in doubt thereof; they have no knowledge thereof save pursuit of a conjecture; they slew him not for certain.
There are translations that mention a substitute as in
Ahmed Raza Khan: Mohammed Aqib Qadri:
And because they said, “We have killed the Messiah, Isa the son of Maryam, the Messenger of Allah” they did not slay him nor did they crucify him, but a look-alike was created for them; and those who disagree concerning it are in doubt about it; they know nothing of it, except the following of assumptions; and without doubt, they did not kill him.
So to me it’s an issue of interpretation.
The Arabic word in question is “Shubbiha” and means
it was made to appear (so)
for more information:
To summarize we find that the Qur’an says martyrs are not “dead” and that those who think they had slain Jesus were wrong and that His spirit ascended to God.