Seems like your question is pretty broad. Yes, the Church of the new covenant grew out of the old covenant. Jesus was a Jew, the Apostles were Jews, the first converts were Jews. As Catholics, we believe that he fulfilled the old covenant, in that He was the anticipated Jewish messiah. Catholicism has a Jewish heritage.
So yes, marriage existed before; but Jesus made it a sacrament, and a special means of grace, and insisted on its permanence.
Ritual washing was a Jewish custom. Jesus instituted baptism as a means of initiation into the new covenant.
He used the occasion of a Passover meal to institute the Eucharist at the Last Supper, the fulfillment of the old covenant, and the establishment of the new covenant in his body and blood–one sacrifice.
He told the Apostles that the Holy Spirit would come upon them, to remind them of everything he had taught. This happened at Pentecost, the birthday of the church. He authorized his apostles and their successors to continue this in the sacrament of confirmation through an anointing with oil.
James 5:14–15 describes the anointing of the sick.
If his Church was to be able to carry on, His apostles needed successors when they died, thus the sacrament of ordination. When Jesus said at the Last Supper, “Do this in remembrance of me,” we believe that He meant for them to carry on into the future what he did that night.
The Jews had animal sacrifices and prayer offerings for sin; but Jesus instituted the sacrament of Penance for the forgiveness of sins in the new covenant. He told the apostles: “Whose sins you forgive, they are forgiven; whose sins you retain, they are retained.”