I would like someone to explain how these patristic quotes on the Eucharist, including one by a Pope, square with the Tridentine teaching that in the Eucharist the substance of the bread and wine are entirely changed into Christ’s body and blood, and that no substance of the bread and wine remain. These quotes seem to indicate such was not the teaching of the Church up to the 11th-12th millenium (not coincidentally, the time of the schism with the Eastern Church). The emphases in the following quotes are mine.
St. Justin Martyr, First Apology, 66:
We call this food Eucharist; and no one else is permitted to partake of it, except one who believes our teaching to be true and who has been washed in the washing which is for the remission of sins annd for regeneration, and is thereby living as Christ has enjoined. For not as common bread nor as common drink do we receive these; but since Jesus Christ our Savior was made incarnate by the word of God and had both flesh and blood for our salvation, so too, as we have been taught, the food which has been made into the Eucharist by the Eucharistic prayer set down by Him, and by the change of which our flesh and blood is nourished, is both the flesh and blood of that incarnated Jesus.
St. Irenaeus, -“Five Books on the Unmasking and Refutation of the Falsely named Gnosis”. Book 4:18 4-5, circa 180 A.D:
“For just as the bread which comes from the earth, having received the invocation of God, is no longer ordinary bread, but the Eucharist, consisting of two realities, earthly and heavenly, so our bodies, having received the Eucharist, are no longer corruptible, because they have the hope of the resurrection.”
Pope St. Gelasius I, Tract on the two natures against Eutchyes & Nestorius:
“Sacred Scripture, testifying that this Mystery [ie. The Incarnation] began at the start of the blessed Conception, says; ‘Wisdom has built a house for itself’(Prov 9:1), rooted in the solidity of the sevenfold Spirit. This Wisdom ministers to us the food of the Incarnation of Christ through which we are made sharers of the divine nature. Certainly the sacraments of the Body and Blood of Christ that we receive are a divine reality, because of which and through which we ‘are made sharers of the divine nature’(1 Pt 1:4). Nevertheless the substance or nature of bread and wine does not cease to exist. And certainly the image and likeness of the Body and Blood of Christ are celebrated in the carrying out the Mysteries.”
St. John of Damascus – “…the bread of the communion is not plain bread but bread united with divinity.”
St. Symeon the New Theologian (1022 AD):
…participation in life are bestowed on us not only in the bread and wine of communion, but in the divinity which attends them and mysteriously mingles with them without confusion.
Note that Justin Martyr and St. Symeon expressly analogize the Eucharistic elements to the incarnation of Christ, wherein Christ is both God and Man. Joe