Next time, you’ll know to check for its whereabouts when you wash bed linens, but I don’t see how what you did is worse than leaving a rosary in a coat for a year or letting it wiggle to the back of a drawer. Maybe you just need to find a place that it gets to live when there aren’t sheets on the bed.
Altar linens are laundered all of the time. If a blessed item needs to be retired from use, then it needs to be destroyed beyond recognition before disposal. Otherwise, it is still a sacramental, and doesn’t need to be blessed again after an ill-advised accidental adventure. That treatment is reserved for altars or churches that have been willfully desecrated–even that is more a recognition of the willful sacrilege the item has suffered, rather than a “re-blessing” in the sense of the item’s blessing having been “lost”–and for rosaries that were so lost that no one can remember if they’ve been blessed at all, that kind of thing.