Were the Apostles aware (before it happenned) of the necessity of Jesus dying for the sins of the world, and did they know he would be resurrected within three days?
Judging from their actions/responses to Jesus arrest and crucifixtion, I am not sure that they did, (Although I am fairly sure Mary was in the know about it.)
True, Jesus did speak frequently that his “hour was coming” and that he would have to suffer. But unless I’m mistaken I am not certain he ever explicitly spelled out the exact nature of the passion?
It would make sense if the apostles were somewhat in the dark. If they were not in the dark about it Peter would never have cut off Malchus’ ear in anger of Christ’s arrest, and would not have felt guilt over the denial of Jesus three times.
Shortly before pentecost,I believe the apostles were congregated together in a room, demoralized and in fear for their lives. If they knew everything beforehand, they wouldn’t have been shocked to see Jesus, and “Doubting Thomas” would not have doubted quite so much.
If my theory is true, than I believe Judas’ perfidy becomes a bit more apparent. It becomes clear that Judas did not want to bring about humanity’s salvation, but just wished to harm Jesus (perhaps out of anger for not being the messiah he wanted?)