I know a lot of people would simply say yes.
But when I think further about it,
The Nation of Israel (Children of Israel) during Moses’ time were all descendants of Jacob (Israel), and there were 13 tribes (or 12 depending on how you count it), all descendants of each son of Jacob.
After the death of King Solomon, there was civil between the 10 northern tribes and the southern tribes (which consist of Judah, Simeon and Benjamin and some Levi). The northern tribes formed the Kingdom of Israel while the southern tribes formed the Kingdom of Judah.
Basically the Kingdom of Judah were the Jews at that time.
And yes I know at our time one could convert to Jewish religion without having a Jewish ancestry, but before the time of Jesus, were there such thing? Let’s say there’s a Roman guy lived in 200 BC, his parents were all Roman ancestry, and he had no connection with Jews. And let’s say one day he met a Jewish community and decided that he loved the way the community was living, was he able to convert to Jews?