What is a censure?
A censure is a type of penalty imposed by the Church. Imposition of such a penalty is intended to motivate a change in behavior and to reintegrate an offending party back into the Church. For this reason a censure is called a medicinal penalty (cf. Code of Canon Law, 1312) as opposed to an expiatory penalty which is compensatory in nature.
For more on this see Censures.