I’m a recent convert from Protestantism, so I dealt with this issue as well (albeit from a different starting point). Much of what I was learning during my conversion was so foreign that I found it deeply unsettling, to say the least. My experience has been that some of this I’ll never understand in this life, and some of it I only understood after I entered the Church. I second the recommendation to get a copy of the Catechism, and I also recommend tuning into the C.A. radio show on a regular basis and listening to the radio archives. Most of all I joyously recommend praying the Rosary every day and spending time in Eucharistic adoration, asking for the grace to understand.
Remember that God is so different than we are that it’s to be expected that we can’t fully understand his nature. When I was in RCIA I got a copy of the Summa Contra Gentiles by St. Thomas Aquinas, and his discussion of the nature of God was absolutely mind-blowing (as was the english text from the latin, it was very hard reading and gave me a headache).
Having accepted that God existed, I went through a process of determining whether or not the biblical texts were accurate historical records. One book that helped me was “Evidence that Demands a Verdict, Volume 1”, by Josh McDowell, which is a discussion of the rules of historical evidence and an application of them to the claims of Christianity. By the time I was done I had to conclude that Jesus really did do all of the amazing things attributed to him and that he is God. This all happened before I was a Catholic.
I was then drawn into a comparison of the claims of Protestantism and Catholicism, and the cornerstone was the question of authority: who, if anyone, did Jesus give the authority to teach binding doctrine? I eventually realized that unless he gave such authority to a specific individual who was empowered to appoint a successor, I would inescapably be in the position of having to arrogate that authority to myself (not a good place to be). And sure enough, scripture shows that Jesus gave such authority to the Apostles, with Peter being placed in a pre-eminent position. He told them that they would always be with them, that he would lead them into all truth, that they’d never forget his teaching, that they would never teach erroneous doctrine, that they teach with the authority of God, that the Church would remain and teach the truth every day, forever.
Then I began to read the early church fathers and compare them to the present day teaching of the Catholic Church, and the rules of evidence that I learned from McDowell led me to conclude that the early Church was the same Catholic Church that we have today.
That’s when I made the decision to submit to the teaching of the Church even if I didn’t always understand or like it. After my baptism, confirmation and first communion, it was like a well opened up inside me after I had spent my whole life in a desert - and it was wonderful!
I know that this is very intellectualised, but I’m an engineer and it worked for me. I’m finally able to let my emotions run because I know I’m in the right place and won’t be deceived.
EUCHARIST, EUCHARIST, EUCHARIST!!!