I am looking for arguments of Catholicism vs. Atheism rather than Catholicism vs. other religions or denominations of Christianity.
There are over 100 interplanetary scientific constants that must occur to produce intelligent life on a planet within it’s universe. Just one constant, is planetary wide in scope. These are not small forces. The chance of all these constants “lining up” to produce an Earth that can sustain life - leaving alone intelligent life - is one chance in 10 to the 138th power.
Astrophysicist Hugh Ross has calculated the probability that these and other constants (122 in all) would exist today for any planet in the universe by chance (I.e., without Divine design).
Assuming there are 10 to the 22nd power planets in the universe (a very large number: 1 with 22 zeros following it), his answer is shocking; one chance in 10 to the 38th power, that’s one chance in one with 138 zeros after it.
There are only about 10 to the 70th power atoms in the entire universe.
In effect, there’s zero chance that any planet in the universe would have the life-supporting conditions we have, unless there is an intelligent Designer behind it all.
A few of these universal and planetary constants to consider:
1: Oxygen Level
On earth, oxygen comprises 21 percent of the atmosphere. That precise figure is an Anthropic Constant that makes life on earth possible. If oxygen were 25% fires would erupt spontaneously, if it were 15%, human beings would suffocate.
Anthropic Constant 2:
If the atmosphere were less transparent, not enough solar radiation would reach the earth’s surface. If it were more transparent we would be bombarded with far roo much solar radiation down here. (In addition to atmospheric transparency, the atmospheric composition of precise levels of nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide and ozone are in themselves Anthropic constants).
Anthropic Constant 3:
Moon-Earth Gravitational Interaction
If the interaction were greater than it currently is, tidal effects on the oceans, atmosphere, and rotational period would be too severe. If it were less, orbital changes would cause climatic instabilities. In either event, life on earth would be impossible.
Anthropic Constant 4:
Carbon Dioxide level
If the CO2 level were higher than it is now, a runaway greenhouse effect would develop (we’d all burn up). If the level were lower than it is now, plants would not be able to maintain efficient photosynthesis (we’d all suffocate).
Anthropic Constant 5:
If the gravitational force were altered by 0.00000000000000000000000000000000000001 percent, our sun would not exist, and, therefore neither would we. Talk about precision.
Anthropic Constant 6:
If the centrifugal force of planetary movements did not precisely balance the gravitational forces, nothing could be held in orbit around the sun.