Here's a partial answer.
There is no one version all Catholics use.
Those who know the original languages of course might read it in the original. Those who know Latin might read the Vulgate.
As far as English translations, some prefer the old Douay-Rheims Bible, which is written in a mixed Tudor/Stewart English much like the King James Bible.
A more modern translation many English speaking Catholics like is the Revised Standard Version Catholic Edition (RSV-CE), a revision of a Protestant version (roots going back to the King James) containing all the books of the Catholic Bible and some changes, some to correct bad theology that crept into the original RSV, others simply language changes presumably made for readability. I believe the RSV-CE is the version used in Great Britain and probably many other English-speaking countries in the liturgy, and English translations of Vatican documents usually is it for Scripture quotations.
There's actually a first and second edition of the RSV-CE following a second round of Catholic revision, and also the Ignatius Catholic Study Bible, which is the RSV-CE (Second Edition) with commentary by the likes of Scott Hahn. I have heard some very good things about it, and plan on buying one soon.
In the United States, the bishops have produced the New American Bible, on which our lectionary is based. Some Catholics have been critical about parts of this translation, including the rather banal translation of the much beloved Pslam 23, and especially critical of some of the introductions to the various books and footnotes found in the volume, which may assert certain questionable scholarly opinions with too much confidence and even might seem like they were written by a non-believer, though the translation and supplemental material have received all sorts of imprimaturs. A new edition of the NAB just came out, making a few changes that some people were critical of. For example, they changed the word "holocaust" to "burnt offering."
A third English translation that has long held a place among English speaking Catholics is the Jerusalem Bible, though I know very little about it except that it was (I assume still is) the favorite of Mother Angelica and that J.R.R. Tolkien played some small part in producing the translation. That sounds encouraging, as far as it goes.
The New Revised Standard Version (NRSV), which apparently also has a Catholic edition though I've never seen it, and New Jerusalem Bible have both been criticized for containing inclusive language, that is, language that has been changed to be more gender-neutral. Assuming the criticism to be factually correct I share the concern. When reading the Bible I want to know what the inspired text actually says. If the translator really wants to insert his or her opinion on how a passage should be interpreted, do it with a footnote, not through a deliberate corruption of the text.