Here are some rules that probably apply to your situation.
Third Rule. The third: OF SPIRITUAL CONSOLATION. I call it consolation when some interior movement in the soul is caused, through which the soul comes to be inflamed with love of its Creator and Lord; and when it can in consequence love no created thing on the face of the earth in itself, but in the Creator of them all.
Fourth Rule. The fourth: OF SPIRITUAL DESOLATION. I call desolation all the contrary of the third rule, such as darkness of soul, disturbance in it, movement to things low and earthly, the unquiet of different agitations and temptations, moving to want of confidence, without hope, without love, when one finds oneself all lazy, tepid, sad, and as if separated from his Creator and Lord. Because, as consolation is contrary to desolation, in the same way the thoughts which come from consolation are contrary to the thoughts which come from desolation.
Fifth Rule. The fifth: In time of desolation never to make a change; but to be firm and constant in the resolutions and determination in which one was the day preceding such desolation, or in the determination in which he was in the preceding consolation. Because, as in consolation it is rather the good spirit who guides and counsels us, so in desolation it is the bad, with whose counsels we cannot take a course to decide rightly.
NOTE: In time of desolation, never change our previous resolutions, since in that time it is the devil who is counseling us.
Sixth Rule. The sixth: Although in desolation we ought not to change our first resolutions, it is very helpful intensely to change ourselves against the same desolation, as by insisting more on prayer, meditation, on much examination, and by giving ourselves more scope in some suitable way of doing penance.
NOTE: In time of despolation, try hard to act contrary to the temptations. Never “go with” the temptation, by consenting to the thoughts. We should be sorry for our sins, but if the devil tries to make you fall into despair over your sins, stop thinking about your sins and turn to the mercy of God. Say “yes, I am a sinner… I have offended God, but I am sorry for my sins and turn towards God infinite mercy”, or something like that. In your post you wrote:
I tell myself, “you’re not a Christian when you act like this!” and all this stuff. And then, I get madder at myself BECAUSE I sinned and it makes me mad that I sinned!"
Clearly this is the devil trying to tempt you to despair. When that happens, turn toward the mercy of God, and don’t focus on your sins: that is not the time.
Seventh Rule. The seventh: Let him who is in desolation consider how the Lord has left him in trial in his natural powers, in order to resist the different agitations and temptations of the enemy; since he can with the Divine help, which always remains to him, though he does not clearly perceive it: because the Lord has taken from him his great fervor, great love and intense grace, leaving him, however, grace enough for eternal salvation.
Eighth Rule. The eighth: Let him who is in desolation labor to be in patience, which is contrary to the vexations which come to him: and let him think that he will soon be consoled, employing against the desolation the devices, as is said in the sixth Rule.
Realize that when the devil sees someone going through a conversion he attacks them very much. When you were living a bad life, he probably left you alone; now that he sees you turning towards God, he begins to attack you.
When someone goes through a conversion, they receive a lot of grace from God, and many attacks by the devil. What you have described is certainly one of the attacks.