The Apostles, for the most part, participated in missionary work as they had been directed by Jesus at Pentecost:
NABRE Matthew 28:19-20
Go, therefore, and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the holy Spirit, teaching them to observe all that I have commanded you.
Andrew (“his [Peter’s] brother”)
The extent or place of his Andrew’s work is uncertain. Eusebius names Scythia as his mission field. Gregory of Nazianzus mentions Epirus; St. Jerome Achaia; and Theodoret Hellas. Nicephorus states that Andrew preached in Cappadocia, Galatia, and Bithynia, then in the Scythian deserts, afterwards in Byzantium itself, where he appointed St. Stachys as its first bishop, and finally in Thrace, Macedonia, Thessaly, and Achaia. He was crucified bound, not nailed, in order to prolong his sufferings. His martyrdom took place during the reign of Nero, on 30 November, A.D. 60.
See also: newadvent.org/fathers/0819.htm
No mention of St. Bartholomew occurs before Eusebius. He mentions that Pantaenus was told that the Apostle had preached in Indis before him and had given his converts the Gospel of St. Matthew written in Hebrew. “India” was a name covering a very wide area, including even Arabia Felix. Other traditions represent St. Bartholomew as preaching in Mesopotamia, Persia, Egypt, Armenia, Lycaonia, Phrygia, and on the shores of the Black Sea.
James (“son of Alphaeus”, the “Lesser”)
Christian antiquity holds that James was Bishop of the Church of Jerusalem. James was called the “Just” and was put to death by the Jews.
James (“son of Zebedee”, "the “Greater”)
On Passover in AD 44, Herod Agrippa I killed James, the brother of John, with the sword. According to some dubious traditions James the Greater preached the Gospel in Spain
John (“his [James’s] brother”, the “one Jesus loved”)
John took a prominent part in the founding and guidance of the Church. He had lived for a long time in Asia Minor and was acquainted with the conditions in the Christian communities there, so he became leader of this part of the Church. Eusebius tells us of the Apostle’s banishment to Patmos in the reign of the Emperor Domitian (81-96).
Committed suicide, replaced by Matthias
Matthew (Levi, “the tax collector”)
We have only inaccurate or legendary data about the career of Matthew.kk St. Irenæus tells us that Matthew preached the Gospel among the Hebrews, St. Clement of Alexandria claiming that he did this for fifteen years, and Eusebius maintains that, before going into other countries, he gave them his Gospel in the mother tongue. Almost all ancient writers mention Ethiopia to the south of the Caspian Sea (not Ethiopia in Africa), and some Persia and the kingdom of the Parthians, Macedonia, and Syria.
Information concerning the life and death of Matthias is vague and contradictory.
He belongied to the Apostolic College. The apocryphal “Acts of Philip,” a tissue of fables, reports Philip’s death to Hieropolis.
Simon (“the Cannanite”, “the Zealot”)
The Abyssinians state that he suffered crucifixion as the Bishop of Jerusalem after he had preached the Gospel in Samaria. Where he actually preached the Gospel is uncertain.
Simon (“who is called Peter”, Leader of the Church)
Peter labored in Jerusalem. He also preached in Palestine and in the lands situated farther north. He approved the selection of Matthias to the Apostolic College to replace Judas.
Next, Peter preached in Lydda and Joppe, and He stayed for a time at Antioch. Peter probably preached in Asia Minor. He devoted himself chiefly to the Diaspora. Peter possibly dwelt in Corinth and planted the Church there.
It is an indisputably established historical fact that St. Peter worked and was martyred in Rome.
Thaddaeus (Judas, Son of James, Lebbaeus)
From the Apocryphal book, The Acts of Thaddaeus
Thaddaeus traveled to Edessa and along with Abgarus destroyed idol-temples and built churches; ordained as bishop one of his disciples, and presbyters, and deacons, and gave them the rule of the psalmody and the holy liturgy. Next, he went to the city of Amis. He remained with them for five years, he built a church; and having appointed as bishop one of his disciples, and presbyters, and deacons, and prayed for them, he went away, going round the cities of Syria. He went to Berytus, a city of Phœnicia by the sea; and there he fell died on twenty-first of the month of August.
Tradition that St. Thomas preached in “India” was widely spread in both East and West and is to be found in such writers as Ephraem Syrus, Ambrose, Paulinus, Jerome, and, later Gregory of Tours and others, still it is difficult to discover any adequate support for the long-accepted belief that St. Thomas pushed his missionary journeys as far south as Mylapore, not far from Madras, and there suffered martyrdom.