Why do Western Catholics call themselves "Roman"?

I’ve always been mystified as to how Catholics claim to be the one apostolic succession from St Peter, when originally it was a Jewish sect which later became known as Christian in Antioch, Syria. The Church was the church of the gentiles as much as it was the church in Rome where the Romans tried to destroy it. I’ve recently discovered that the “Roman” tittle was given by the Protestants. Why then do we call ourselves “Roman” Catholic with so much confusion? And how does the church of Rome started by Constantine fit into the picture?

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Recommended Reading:

Catholic or Roman Catholic
When did the term “Roman Catholic Church” come into being?

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