As adults, we have a responsibility to educate ourselves. A person in his or her 60s likely learned a lot in Catholic grade school but forgot because it lost perceived importance in the person's life (just a general statement...not a judgement of OP!). What you learn in grade school (whether science, religion or history) can be forgotten if not reinforced.
Congratulations for your renewed zeal for the faith! :extrahappy:
Although I'm a bit younger, there was much for me to learn when my faith was reawakened as an adult. I read, read, and read! CDs such as those from Lighthouse Catholic media are great, too. Catholic radio and EWTN are great resources, too.
There are opportunities to learn...RCIA is a great thing for adults already confirmed. Our parish priest invites all to come and learn more about there faith. RCIA and study of the Catechism are great ways to really learn your faith.
If there is a Catholic college nearby, there are likely talks that non students can attend. Or you could audit a class. Retreats and conventions might be another route. It's good to look at offerings at several local parishes. And the Bible is available...study bibles, lectio divina bible (from Paulist Press). Again, don't forget the Catechism!
A 20 minute homily on Sunday need not be the extent of one's education...perhaps daily Mass attendance or involvement in ministry/prayer groups could help. Teaching can also be an educational experience!
I am a little confused by the assertion that Catholics should follow Protestant example for the things listed. As a Sunday School teacher myself, I assure you that most Catholic Parishes have that (also known as CCD). Since many Catholics choose to have their children educated in Catholic schools, they receive religious instruction 5 days a week(and hopefully daily at home!) and therefore their children do not go to Sunday school. Some parents choose to homeschool and therefore have more opportunity to instill the faith since parents are the primary educators of children.
As far as Youth Group goes, some Catholic parishes offer that. Although I've observed that youth groups of any denomination are not necessarily learning about their faith...it is about fellowship...not a bad thing, just not what the OP is talking about.
Finally, Bible study is not exclusive to Protestants either! Some parishes offer that, and if yours doesn't, perhaps the Holy Spirit is encouraging you to start one. Private Bible study is an option, too, and books/CDs by experts such as Scott Hahn are a great place to start.
I'd be remiss if I didn't say none of this is necessary for salvation (there are many saints in heaven who couldn't even read... and many martyrs killed minutes after their baptism). But I sure feel blessed to have the rich tradition of the Catholic faith to learn about and continue to learn about as I am 30, 40, 50, 60 and beyond!