Why does the Nova Vulgata's translation of Esther differ so much from other translations?


#1

For those of you who are somewhat familiar with the Nova Vulgata, you have probably noticed that its way of including the deuterocanonical parts differs from other modern Bible editions. However, when I was going to look up the text that was used during Mass for Thursday in the first week of Lent (C:12, 14-16, 23-25) , I discovered that parts of the text itself differs also differs quite a lot from other editions. According to the table on this page, Addition C corresponds to verses 4:17-4:17kk in the Nova Vulgata and to verses 13:8-14:19 in the old Vulgate.

Of course, the Nova Vulgata takes into account findings from modern textual criticism, which would be the reason if it differs from old versions of the Vulgata, like the Vulgata Clementina. However, in this case, what I found very puzzling is that modern translations like the RSV-CE, JB and NAB pretty much agrees with the Vulgata Clementina, whereas the text of the Nova Vulgata is partly completely different.

[quote="Nova Vulgata Esther 4:17n-17kk]17n Esther quoque regina confugit ad Dominum pavens periculum mortis, quod imminebat.
17o Cumque deposuisset vestes gloriae, suscepit indumenta luctus et pro unguentis superbiae implevit caput suum cinere et corpus suum humiliavit ieiuniis valde.
17p Et cecidit super terram cum ancillis suis a mane usque ad vesperam et dixit:
17q “ Deus Abraham et Deus Isaac et Deus Iacob, benedictus es.
Suffraga mihi soli
et non habenti defensorem praeter te, Domine,
17r quoniam periculum in manu mea est.
17s Ego audivi ex libris maiorum meorum, Domine,
quoniam tu Noe in aqua diluvii conservasti.
17t Ego audivi ex libris maiorum meorum, Domine,
quoniam tu Abrahae in trecentis et decem octo viris
novem reges tradidisti.
17u Ego audivi ex libris maiorum meorum, Domine,
quoniam tu Ionam de ventre ceti liberasti.
17v Ego audivi ex libris maiorum meorum, Domine,
quoniam tu Ananiam, Azariam et Misael de camino ignis liberasti.
17x Ego audivi ex libris maiorum meorum, Domine,
quoniam tu Daniel de lacu leonum eruisti.
17y Ego audivi ex libris maiorum meorum, Domine,
quoniam tu Ezechiae, regi Iudaeorum,
morte damnato et oranti pro vita misertus es
et donasti ei vitae annos quindecim.
17z Ego audivi ex libris maiorum meorum, Domine,
quoniam tu Annae petenti in desiderio animae
filii generationem donasti.
17aa Ego audivi ex libris maiorum meorum, Domine,
quoniam tu omnes complacentes tibi liberas, Domine,
usque in finem.

17bb Et nunc adiuva me solitariam
et neminem habentem nisi te,
Domine, Deus meus.
[/quote]

[quote="New American Bible Esther C:12-30]12b Queen Esther, seized with mortal anguish, fled to the Lord for refuge. 13Taking off her splendid garments, she put on garments of distress and mourning. In place of her precious ointments she covered her head with dung and ashes. She afflicted her body severely and in place of her festive adornments, her tangled hair covered her.

14Then she prayed to the Lord, the God of Israel, saying: “My Lord, you alone are our King. Help me, who am alone and have no help but you, 15for I am taking my life in my hand.c **16From birth, I have heard among my people that you, Lord, chose Israel from among all nations, and our ancestors from among all their forebears, as a lasting inheritance, and that you fulfilled all your promises to them.d 17But now we have sinned in your sight, and you have delivered us into the hands of our enemies, 18because we worshiped their gods. You are just, O Lord. 19But now they are not satisfied with our bitter servitude, but have sworn an oath to their idols 20to do away with the decree you have pronounced, to destroy your inheritance, to close the mouths of those who praise you, to extinguish the glory of your house and your altar, 21to open the mouths of the nations to acclaim their worthless gods, and to extol a mortal king forever.

22“Lord, do not relinquish your scepter to those who are nothing. Do not let our foes gloat over our ruin, but turn their own counsel against them and make an example of the one who began this against us. 23Be mindful of us, Lord. Make yourself known in the time of our distress and give me courage, King of gods and Ruler of every power. 24Put in my mouth persuasive words in the presence of the lion, and turn his heart to hatred for our enemy, so that he and his co-conspirators may perish.** 25Save us by your power, and help me, who am alone and have no one but you, Lord.
[/quote]

Compare also with the Vulgata Clementina or drbo.org/chapter/19014.htm}Douay-Rheims 14:1-19, which the NAB pretty much agrees with.

Verses 17s-17aa in the NV differs completely from verses C:16-24 in the NAB and 14:5-13 in the VC. The following verses are also in different order in the NV. Verse 17gg in the NV (roughly) corresponds to 14:13 in the VG and C:24 in the NAB. But the verse C:23 that is also used for the Mass reading, I have not been able to find anywhere in the NV at all.

Could anybody explain why the Nova Vulgata’s rendering of this passage differs so much from other translations?


#2

The prayer of Esther (4:17m-kk) is based on a Vetus Latina version (Pierre Sabatier’s Bibliorum Sacrorum Latinae Versiones Antiquae seu Vetus Italica (1743), pp. 808-810).

Et Hester regina, & ipsa exuit vestimenta gloria suae, & induta est veste sordida, & abstulit omne aurum a se, & substravit sibi cilicium, & pro ambitiosis odoraminibus, implevit caput suum cinere, & humiliavit omne corpus suum valde: & cecidit super terram cum ancillis suis, a mane usque ad vesperam.

Et dixit: Deus Abraham, & Deus Isaac, & Deus Jacob, benedictus es. Suffraga mihi soli, & non habenti defensorem, praeter te Domine, quoniam periculum in manu mea est.

Ego audivi in libris paternis meis, Domine, quoniam Noe in aqua diluvii conservasti. Ego audivi in libris paternis meis, Domine, quoniam tu Abrahae in trecentis & decem octo viris, novem reges tradidisti. Ego audivi in libris paternis meis, Domine, quoniam tu Jonam de ventre ceti liberasti. Ego audivi in libris paternis meis, Domine, quoniam tu Ananiam, Azariam, Misahel de camino ignis liberasti. Ego audivi in libris paternis meis, Domine, quoniam tu Daniel de lacu leonum eruisti. Ego audivi in libris paternis meis, Domine, quoniam tu Ezechiae, regi Judaeorum, morte damnato, & orante pro vita misertus es, & donasti ei vitae annos quindecim. Ego audivi in libris paternis meis, Domine, quoniam tu Annae petenti in desiderio animae, filii generationem donasti.
Ego audivi in libris paternis meis, Domine, quoniam tu omnes complacentes tibi liberas Domine usque in finem.

Et nunc mihi soli, & neminem habenti, nisi te, Domine Deus, Domine Deus subveni.
Tu nosti, quoniam abominata est ancilla tua concubitum incircumcisorum.
Deus tu nosti, quoniam non manducavi de mensa exsecrationum, & vinum libationum non bibi.
Tu nosti, quoniam a via conersationis meae, non sum laetata, Domine, nisi in te solo.
Tu scis, Deus, quoniam ex quo vestimentum hoc super caput meum est, exsecror illud tamquam pannum fluxuationis muliebris, & non indui illud in die bona.

Et nunc subveni orphanae mihi, & verbum concinnum da in os meum in conspectu leonis da, & gratam da in conspectu meo, & converte cor ejus in odium oppugnantis nos,
in perditionem ejus & eorum, & qui consentiunt ei.

Nos autem libera de manu inimicorum nostrorum, transfer luctum nostrum in laetitiam, Dolores autem nostros in hilaritatem: surgentes autem supra partem tuam, Deus, partam facito, aperi Domine; cognoscere Domine…

Note that this particular example (from Codex Monacensis, aka Corbeiensis = Bayerische Staatsbibliothek Clm 6239) corresponds with the Nova Vulgata almost word for word.

L (= Vetus Latina) is a slavishly literal translation of G (= the Greek), but its translator was not a very good Greek scholar; and, particularly in the more rhetorical passages, such as are found in the long additions, he fails to understand the meaning. Usually, it is easy to see what Greek words he had before him. The Old Latin contains all the long additions of the various Greek recensions, and has besides a number of interesting additions of its own. Thus after 3:14 it appends a long prayer of the Jews …]; 4:4, Esther’s distress on hearing that Mordecai is clothed in sackcloth; 4:17, Mordecai’s proclamation of a fast; 16, the deliverance of Noah, Abraham, Jonah, Hananiah, Azariah, Mishael, Daniel, Hezekiah, and Anna. These additions bear internal evidence of being translated from a Greek original; and in certain cases the mistakes show clearly that they are derived ultimately from a Heb. or Aram. source (cf. Jacob, ZATW. 1890, p. 257).…] These additions must be fragments of ancient Jewish midrashim that were used to enrich the Greek codex from which this Latin version was made.

  • A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Book of Esther, Lewis Bayles Paton (1908), p. 40

#3

I see. So the NV is based on an old Latin translation, rather on any existing greek manuscripts. Since the NV is now normative for the Catholic liturgy, doesn’t this mean that other modern Catholic Bible translations should be based on the same text? And should they also be translated from the Vetus Latina, rather from existing Septuagint manuscripts? Or are modern Catholic translations of the Bible suppose to differ this much from the Nova Vulgata?


#4

I think the Stuttgart version was based on the Vetus Latina.

Here is a Wiki summary on the Nova Vulgata:
The foundational text of most of the Old Testament is the critical edition done by the monks of the Benedictine Abbey of St. Jerome under Pope St. Pius X. The foundational text of the books of Tobit and Judith are from manuscripts of the Vetus Latina rather than the Vulgate. The New Testament was based on the 1969 edition of the Stuttgart Vulgate. All of these base texts were revised to accord with the modern critical editions in Greek, Hebrew, and Aramaic. There are also a number of changes where the modern scholars felt that Jerome had failed to grasp the meaning of the original languages, or had rendered it obscurely.

Just a note: You can tell the version you have from the name of Eve in Gen3:20. Stuttgart uses Hava. The Clementine uses Heva. The Nova uses Eva


#5

No. The Stuttgart is essentially what you would call a ‘critical edition’ of the Vulgate. (A critical edition is basically what results when scholars compare the different surviving manuscripts of a given work - in this case, manuscripts of the Vulgate - in order to determine which reading is most likely to be closest to what the original text would have said. In other words, it attempts to reconstruct the ‘original’ text of the Vulgate as best as it could.)


#6

Not necessarily. I know the Nova Vulgata is now the official Latin translation used by the Church, but AFAIK there’s really no directive from the Holy See that Catholic Bibles should be translated from the same texts as those used in the NV. Yeah, I know that Liturgiam Authenticam established the NV as a point of reference for vernacular translations of the Liturgy (“in the preparation of these translations for liturgical use, the Nova Vulgata Editio, promulgated by the Apostolic See, is normally to be consulted as an auxiliary tool …] in order to maintain the tradition of interpretation that is proper to the Latin Liturgy”), but I don’t know of any similar directive for ‘private’ Bibles.

I think we need to take into consideration the fact that the order of readings (the Ordo Lectionum Missae, 1969) was promulgated before the complete NV came out (1979). In the 1975 Missal (Missale Romanum cum lectionibus), you would notice that the Clementine Vulgate reading is still given (passage is cited as 14:1, 3-5, 12-14 – the Vulgate order, which puts all the Greek ‘additions’ to Esther at the end of the main text). I’ll quote it here:

Lectio libri Esther. (14.1, 3-5, 12-14)

In diebus illis:
Esther regina confugit ad Dominum, pavens periculum quod imminebat.
Et deprecabatur Dominum Deum Israel dicens:
«Domine mi, qui rex noster es solus, adiuva me solitariam, et cuius præter te nullus est auxiliator alius. Periculum meum in manibus meis est. Audivi a patre meo quod tu, Domine, tulisses Israel de cunctis gentibus et patres nostros ex omnibus retro maioribus suis, ut possideres hæreditatem sempiternam; fecistique eis sicut locutus es.
Memento, Domine, et ostende te nobis in tempore tribulationis nostræ, et da mihi fiduciam, Domine, rex deorum et universæ potestatis. Tribue sermonem compositum in ore meo in conspectu leonis, et transfer cor illius in odium hostis nostri, ut et ipse pereat et ceteri qui ei consentiunt.
Nos autem libera manu tua, et adiuva me, nullum aliud auxilium habentem nisi te, Domine, qui habes omnium scientiam.» – Verbum Domini.

==

(From the Douay-Rheims)

In those days:
Queen Esther, fearing the danger that was at hand, had recourse to the Lord.
And she prayed to the Lord the God of Israel, saying:
"O my Lord, who alone art our king, help me a desolate woman, and who have no other helper but thee. My danger is in my hands. I have heard of my father that thou, O Lord, didst take Israel from among all nations, and our fathers from all their predecessors, to possess them as an everlasting inheritance, and thou hast done to them as thou hast promised.
"Remember, O Lord, and shew thyself to us in the time of our tribulation, and give me boldness, O Lord, king of gods, and of all power: Give me a well ordered speech in my mouth in the presence of the lion, and turn his heart to the hatred of our enemy, that both he himself may perish, and the rest that consent to him.
“But deliver us by thy hand, and help me, who have no other helper, but thee, O Lord, who hast the knowledge of all things.”


#7

The order of readings was revised in 1981 to conform it with the NV. I don’t have any copy of the 1981 Ordo Lectionum Missae to check (nor can I find one online), but I did check this lectionary and the USCCB website. Working backwards from the English version given there (which corresponds more closely to the NV version rather than the NAB), I’d guess the reading for the current lectionary would be Esther 4:17n, p-r, aa-bb, gg-hh from the NV.

Queen Esther, seized with mortal anguish, had recourse to the LORD.
She lay prostate upon the ground, together with her handmaids, from morning until evening, and said:
“God of Abraham, God of Isaac, and God of Jacob, blessed are you.
Help me, who am alone and have no help but you,
for I am taking my life in my hand.
As a child I used to hear from the books of my forefathers
that you, O LORD, always free those who are pleasing to you.
Now help me, who am alone and have no one but you, O LORD, my God.

“And now, come to help me, an orphan.
Put in my mouth persuasive words in the presence of the lion
and turn his heart to hatred for our enemy,
so that he and those who are in league with him may perish.
Save us from the hand of our enemies;
turn our mourning into gladness
and our sorrows into wholeness.”

===

(Reconstructing what the Latin says)

Esther regina confugit ad Dominum pavens periculum mortis, quod imminebat. …]
Cecidit super terram cum ancillis suis a mane usque ad vesperam et dixit:
Deus Abraham et Deus Isaac et Deus Iacob, benedictus es.
Suffraga mihi soli
et non habenti defensorem praeter te, Domine,
quoniam periculum in manu mea est.
…] Ego audivi ex libris maiorum meorum, …]
quoniam tu omnes complacentes tibi liberas, Domine,
…]
Et nunc adiuva me solitariam
et neminem habentem nisi te,
Domine, Deus meus.

…] Et nunc subveni orphanae mihi
et verbum concinnum da in os meum in conspectu leonis …]
et converte cor eius in odium oppugnantis nos,
in perditionem eius et eorum, qui consentiunt ei.
Nos autem libera de manu inimicorum nostrorum;
converte luctum nostrum in laetitiam
et dolores nostros in sanitatem.

It’s one of the rare cases where the lectionary translates what the NV says rather than giving an equivalent from a translation such as the NAB.

This is just personal hunch, but I’m guessing the citation in the English version (C:12, 14-16, 23-25) is a carryover from the time from before the NV was released and which was never updated (probably by accident). Note how the relevant passage from the NAB appears; it’s almost exactly the same as what the Clementine Vulgate says.

Queen Esther, seized with mortal anguish, fled to the Lord for refuge.
She prayed to the Lord, the God of Israel, saying: “My Lord, you alone are our King. Help me, who am alone and have no help but you, for I am taking my life in my hand. From birth, I have heard among my people that you, Lord, chose Israel from among all nations, and our ancestors from among all their forebears, as a lasting inheritance, and that you fulfilled all your promises to them.

"Be mindful of us, Lord. Make yourself known in the time of our distress and give me courage, King of gods and Ruler of every power. Put in my mouth persuasive words in the presence of the lion, and turn his heart to hatred for our enemy, so that he and his co-conspirators may perish.

“Save us by your power, and help me, who am alone and have no one but you, Lord. [You know all things.]”


#8

I see, thanks.


#9

I just read the Praenotanda för the Nova Vulgata, which explains things a bit. However, since I am not fluent in Latin, maybe someone can help clarifying what it menas:

Liber ESTHER in Ecclesia legitur secundum duas formas canonicas. Textus Hebraicus a s. Hieronymo translatus exstat in editione Vulgata in Est 1, 1-10,3. Textus Graecus non est simplex versio, sed retractatio libri Hebraici, largiter aucta et etiam partim transformata. Partes, quae in libro Hebraico desunt, s. Hieronymus addidit post versionem textus Hebraici (in Vulgata 10, 4–16, 24). Editio Graeca condicioni Iudaeorum in diaspora degentium aptata est, ut apparet in transformato decreto regio Mardochaei (8, 12 et 8, 12u-cc = Vulgata 16, 17-24). Huic mutationi congruit in versione Vetere Latina textus Graeci omissio pugnae (9, 1-2.5-19). In hac omissione et aliis lectionibus variantibus, in quibus distat a textu manu scriptis Graecis tradito, versio Vetus Latina textum Graecum primigenium conservavit. Textus autem Graecus in exemplaribus manu scriptis Graecis traditus (exceptis paucis exemplaribus manu scriptis sic dictis Lucianeis) secundum subscriptionem (10, 31 = Vulgata 11, 1) est opus Lysimachi (filii Ptolemaei Hierosolymitani), qui textum Graecum textui Hebraico assimilavit supplens omissiones. Haec est subscriptio: “ Anno quarto, regnantibus Ptolemaeo et Cleopatra, attulerunt Dositheus, qui se sacerdotem et levitici generis ferebat, et Ptolemaeus filius eius hanc epistulam Phurim, quam dixerunt esse (genuinam) et interpretatum esse Lysimachum Ptolemaei filium in Ierusalem ”. Versioni textus Hebraici inseruntur additiones et aliae quaedam discrepantiae editionis Graecae (= II), quae sunt maioris momenti, in locis eis convenientibus. Numeratio harum partium fit litteris post numeros positis. Versio autem supponit textum versionis Veteris Latinae, exceptis duobus decretis regiis (3, 13a–g; 8, 12a-cc), in quibus interpretes difficile idioma rhetoricum non plene intellexerunt et quae Lysimachus fere solum in 8, 12y mutavit, pro die decima quarta Adar secundum editionem Hebraicam diem decimam tertiam ponens; in 3, 13f autem conservavit diem decimam quartam, quia iam suo tempore in textu Hebraico (3, 7) dies caedi Iudaeorum assignatus exciderat. Auctor Graecus diem decimam tertiam Adar in diem decimam quartam mutavit, quia secundum illum dies excidio destinatus iam ut dies festus celebrandus est (8, 12z-aa) et decreto regio (8, 12cc) pugna est impedita.

As far as I get it, it says something like that the Vetus Latina was followed except for additions 3:13a-g and 8:12a-cc, since it is believed that it better corresponds to the original Greek text ("In hac omissione et aliis lectionibus variantibus, in quibus distat a textu manu scriptis Graecis tradito, versio Vetus Latina textum Graecum primigenium conservavit.). But I can’t really follow the argumentation for that. The Vetus Latina omits the fighting in 9:1-2, 5-19 which is in the Hebrew text, wouldn’t that be a proof that the Vetus Latina is the one that introduced changes? And the Vetus Latina has the fourteenth of Adar in 8:12 whereas both the Hebres text and the Septuagint (as well as the NV) has thirteenth of Adar. But I don’t really understand the significance of that, either.

Could anybody more fluent in Latin please explain?


#10

I’ll leave the translating for someone more fluent in Latin, but I can tell you this:

The fighting in Susa is only briefly related in at least one of the Greek versions. Now there are actually two versions of Esther in Greek: one is the ‘Old Greek’ (let’s call it OG), the other is the ‘Alpha’ (AT) or ‘Lucianic’ text. Overall, OG is the more closest of the two with the Hebrew text (Masoretic) - but it’s not a literal translation. On the other hand, AT - which is shorter than OG and the Hebrew by 20% - is the freer and the more lexically diverse translation of the two. Generally, the AT omits 9:1-2, 5, 11, 14-15, and 17-19; OG meanwhile only omits verse 5.

Hebrew (ESV)

(8:15) Then Mordecai went out from the presence of the king in royal robes of blue and white, with a great golden crown and a robe of fine linen and purple, and the city of Susa shouted and rejoiced. (16) The Jews had light and gladness and joy and honor. (17) And in every province and in every city, wherever the king’s command and his edict reached, there was gladness and joy among the Jews, a feast and a holiday. And many from the peoples of the country declared themselves Jews, for fear of the Jews had fallen on them.

(9:1) Now in the twelfth month, which is the month of Adar, on the thirteenth day of the same, when the king’s command and edict were about to be carried out, on the very day when the enemies of the Jews hoped to gain the mastery over them, the reverse occurred: the Jews gained mastery over those who hated them. (2) The Jews gathered in their cities throughout all the provinces of King Ahasuerus to lay hands on those who sought their harm. And no one could stand against them, for the fear of them had fallen on all peoples. (3) All the officials of the provinces and the satraps and the governors and the royal agents also helped the Jews, for the fear of Mordecai had fallen on them. (4) For Mordecai was great in the king’s house, and his fame spread throughout all the provinces, for the man Mordecai grew more and more powerful. (5) The Jews struck all their enemies with the sword, killing and destroying them, and did as they pleased to those who hated them. (6) In Susa the citadel itself the Jews killed and destroyed 500 men, (7) and also killed Parshandatha and Dalphon and Aspatha (8) and Poratha and Adalia and Aridatha (9) and Parmashta and Arisai and Aridai and Vaizatha, (10) the ten sons of Haman the son of Hammedatha, the enemy of the Jews, but they laid no hand on the plunder. (11) That very day the number of those killed in Susa the citadel was reported to the king.

===

Old Greek (NETS)

(8:15) Then Mardocaios went out, wearing the royal robe, with a gold crown and a diadem of purple linen, and when the people of Susa saw him they rejoiced. (16) For the Judeans there was light and gladness; (17) in every city and country wherever the ordinance was posted, wherever the proclamation was made, there was gladness and joy among the Judeans, a feast and mirth. And many of the nations were circumcised and became Judeans out of fear of the Judeans.

(9:1) Now in the twelfth month, on the thirteenth day of the month that is Adar, the letter written by the king arrived. (2) On that same day the opponents of the Judeans perished, for no one resisted, because they feared them. (3) For the rulers of the satraps and the tyrants and the royal secretaries esteemed the Judeans, for the fear of Mardochaios weighed upon them. (4) For it turned out that the king’s ordinance was referred to by name throughout all the kingdom. (6) And in the city of Susa the Judeans killed five hundred men, (7) including Pharsannestain, Delphon, Phasga (8) and Phardatha and Barea and Sarbacha (9) and Marmasim and Arouphaios and Arsaios and Zabouthaios, (10) the ten sons of Haman son of Hamadathos, a Bougean, the enemy of the Judeans, and they plundered (11) on that same day. The number of those killed in Susa was reported to the king.

Alpha Text (NETS)

(8:15) [7:39] Then Mardochaios went out wearing the royal clothing and a diadem of purple linen, [40] and when the people in Susa saw him they rejoiced. (16) For the Judeans there was light, drinking, feasting. (17) [41] And many of the Judeans were circumcised, and no one rose up against them. For they feared them.

(9:3) [42] Now the rulers and the tyrants and the satraps and the royal secretaries esteemed the Judeans; for the fear of Mardochaios weighed upon them. (4) [43] And in Susa it turned out that Haman was referred to by name and so were the opponents throughout the whole kingdom. (6) [44] In Susa the Judeans killed seven hundred men (7) as well as Pharsan and his brother and Pharna (8) and Gagaphardatha (9) and Marmasaima and Izathouth (10) and the ten sons of Haman son of Hamadathos, the Bougean, the enemy of the Judeans, and they plundered all they owned.

Note the differences in detail throughout the text (Did the Jews kill five hundred men or seven hundred? Did the Jews plunder or not?)


#11

Hebrew (ESV)

(12) And the king said to Queen Esther, “In Susa the citadel the Jews have killed and destroyed 500 men and also the ten sons of Haman. What then have they done in the rest of the king’s provinces! Now what is your wish? It shall be granted you. And what further is your request? It shall be fulfilled.” (13) And Esther said, “If it please the king, let the Jews who are in Susa be allowed tomorrow also to do according to this day’s edict. And let the ten sons of Haman be hanged on the gallows.” (14) So the king commanded this to be done. A decree was issued in Susa, and the ten sons of Haman were hanged. (15) The Jews who were in Susa gathered also on the fourteenth day of the month of Adar and they killed 300 men in Susa, but they laid no hands on the plunder.

(16) Now the rest of the Jews who were in the king’s provinces also gathered to defend their lives, and got relief from their enemies and killed 75,000 of those who hated them, but they laid no hands on the plunder. (17) This was on the thirteenth day of the month of Adar, and on the fourteenth day they rested and made that a day of feasting and gladness. (18) But the Jews who were in Susa gathered on the thirteenth day and on the fourteenth, and rested on the fifteenth day, making that a day of feasting and gladness. (19) Therefore the Jews of the villages, who live in the rural towns, hold the fourteenth day of the month of Adar as a day for gladness and feasting, as a holiday, and as a day on which they send gifts of food to one another.

===

Old Greek (NETS)

(12) The king said to Esther, “The Jews have killed in the city of Susa five hundred men. In the surrounding countryside how do you suppose they have fared? Therefore, what more do you ask? It shall be yours.” (13) And so Esther said to the king, “Let it be granted to the Judeans to do likewise tomorrow so that they may hang the ten sons of Haman.” (14) So he thus permitted it to be done and handed over to the Judeans the city of the bodies of Haman’s sons to hang. (15) The Judeans in Susa gathered also on the fourteenth day of the month of Adar, and they killed three hundred men, but they did not plunder.

(16) Now the rest of the Judeans who were in the kingdom also gathered and defended themselves and gained relief from their adversaries. For they killed fifteen thousand of them on the thirteenth of Adar, but they plundered nothing. (17) And they rested on the fourteenth of the same month and celebrated it as a day of rest with joy and gladness. (18) But the Judeans in the city of Susa gathered also on the fourteenth and did not rest. They celebrated also the fifteenth with joy and gladness. (19) Therefore for this reason, the Judeans who are scattered in every land outside celebrate the fourteenth day of Adar as a holiday with gladness, each sending portions [or: gifts of food] to those nearby. But those living in the large cities also celebrate the fifteenth of Adar as a joyful holiday, sending portions [or: gifts of food] to those nearby.

Alpha Text (NETS)

(8:12) [7:45] And the king said to Esther, “How have your people here and in the surrounding countryside fared?” (13) [46] And Esther said, “Let it be granted to the Judeans to destroy and plunder whomever they want.” And he agreed. (16) And they killed seventy thousand one hundred men.


#12

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