China has been inward-looking for the past several thousand years. Being open to non-native cultural, social, political, and religious influences is a relatively recent experience for the Chinese. For most Chinese, it’s not only Catholicism that was unknown, but the vast majority of everything else about the outside world.
Further, for most of its recent, “open” history, China has been controlled by a Communist government: officially atheist and determined to stomp out any influence that might draw the population to look elsewhere for guidance.
Do I think it will change over the next 100 years? No. Major shifts in Chinese culture will be toward a powerful, competing religion: Capitalism. Capitalism and Western religion (e.g. Catholicism) aren’t antithetical to one another, but Capitalism is a lot easier to worship if religion isn’t hamstringing it.