There is a story in the Midrash (part of the Jewish oral tradition interpreting Scripture) which goes essentially like this:
Several rabbis were debating a portion of scripture. One said “if the law is according to me, let this locust tree prove it” and the locust tree moved. A second disagreed and said “if the law let this stream of water prove it” and stream turned and flowed backwards. A third rabbi disagreed with both and said “if the law is according to me, let the walls of the House of Study, prove it” and the walls began to topple. Another rabbis interposed “if the law is according to me. Let the heavan prove it.” And a voice from heaven said “why do you dispute with Rabbi Eliezner? The law is according to him in any case.”
Another rabbi rebuked the voice from heaven and quoting scripture said “it is not in heaven.” What is the meaning of it is not heaven? “The Torah has already been given once and for all from Mount Sinai. We do not listen to voices from heaven. For You have already written in the Torah: ‘After the majority must one incline.’”
Another rabbi asked Elijah: “What was the Holy One, blessed be he, doing at that moment?” Elijah responded: “he was smiling and saying: My children have defeated me, my children have defeated me!”
How does Catholicism react to the concept of defeating God in an argument?