jizyah is a tribute in money or in kind which is paid by non muslim as a badge of thier surrender or submission or subjection. the koran supports this, it says in surrah 9:29 " fight the unbeliever until they pay jizyah with WILLING SUBMISSION AND FEEL THEMSELVES SUBSUED". The koran uses words 'submission" and ‘subdued’ not protection.
THEREFORE jizya is a badge of surrender or submission or subjection of non muslim as such an act of humiliation.
a non muslim citizen in an islamic government is always a subject by virtue of his jizya while a muslim citizen in thesame islamic government is not a subject becuase he does not pay jizya.
Therefore; a non muslim in an islamic government is always a second class citizen vis-a-vis a muslim citizen